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Part Two Population Processes. Part Outline 5 The Mortality Transition 6 The Fertility Transition 7 The Migration Transition.

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Presentation on theme: "Part Two Population Processes. Part Outline 5 The Mortality Transition 6 The Fertility Transition 7 The Migration Transition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part Two Population Processes

2 Part Outline 5 The Mortality Transition 6 The Fertility Transition 7 The Migration Transition

3 Chapter 5 The Mortality Transition

4 Chapter Outline Life Span And Longevity Age And Sex Patterns Of Mortality Causes Of Death Measuring Mortality The Mortality/Epidemiological Transition

5 Life Span And Longevity Life span is the oldest age to which human beings can survive. Longevity is the ability to resist death. Life span is almost entirely a biological phenomenon. Longevity has biological and social components.

6 Longevity: Biological Factors No more than 35% of the variability in longevity is due to inherited characteristics: Strength of vital organs Predisposition to particular diseases Metabolism rate

7 Longevity: Social Factors 1.Social and economic infrastructure: Distribution of wealth. Purification of water and milk. Vaccination against diseases. Control of rodents and pests. Availability of food, shelter and clothing. Whether acute care, long-term care and medical assistance are available.

8 Longevity: Social Factors 2.Lifestyle Smoking Drug use Excessive alcohol use Fatty food Exercise

9 Highest Death Rates: Young and the Old

10 Infant Mortality Around the World

11 “Rectangularization” of Mortality in the U.S.

12 Sex and Gender Differentials in Mortality Women live longer than men Women could expect to live 2 years longer than men in the U.S The difference had peaked at 7.8 years The difference has dropped to 5.4 years, but the survival advantage of women is nearly universal among the nations of the world.

13 Factors in Risk of Death in Pregnancy 1.Lack of prenatal care that might identify problems before they become risky. 2.Delivering the baby somewhere besides a hospital. 3.Seeking an unsafe abortion.

14 Causes of Death Major reasons people die: 1. They are killed by infectious and parasitic diseases. 2. They degenerate. 3. They are killed by products of the social and economic environment.

15 Leading Causes of Death Cause of Death Major Category USA (2001) Canada (1997) Mexico (2001) Diseases of the heart Degenerative Malignant neoplasms Degenerative

16 Leading Causes of Death Cause of Death Major Category USA (2001) Canada (1997) Mexico (2001) Cerebrovascular diseases Degenerative Chronic lower respiratory disease Degenerative

17 Leading Causes of Death Cause of Death Major Category USA (2001) Canada (1997) Mexico (2001) AccidentsSocial Diabetes mellitus Degenerative Influenza and pneumonia Infectious

18 Leading Causes of Death Cause of Death Major Category USA (2001) Canada (1997) Mexico (2001) Alzheimer’s disease Degenerative2.2n.a. Nephritis, nephritic syndrome, and nephrosis Degenerative1.61.2n.a. SepticemiaInfectious1.3n.a4.1

19 HIV/AIDS Statistics and Features, End of 2003 Region Adults & children living with HIV/AIDS Adult prevalence (%) Adult & child deaths due to AIDS Sub-Saharan Africa 25.0–28.2 million 7.5– –2.4 million North Africa & Middle East – – –50 000

20 HIV/AIDS Statistics and Features, End of 2003 Region Adults & children living with HIV/AIDS Adult prevalence (%) Adult & child deaths due to AIDS South & Southeast Asia 4.6 – 8.2 million 0.4– – East Asia & Pacific –1.3 million 0.1– – Latin America 1.3–1.9 million0.5– –70 000

21 HIV/AIDS Statistics and Features, End of 2003 Region Adults & children living with HIV/AIDS Adult prevalence (%) Adult & child deaths due to AIDS Caribbean – – – Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.2–1.8 million0.5– –

22 HIV/AIDS Statistics and Features, End of 2003 Region Adults & children living with HIV/AIDS Adult prevalence (%) Adult & child deaths due to AIDS Western Europe – – –3400 North America –1.2 million 0.5– – Australia & New Zealand 2 000– –0.1<100

23 Accidental Deaths 1/2 of all accidental deaths in the U.S. are attributable to motor vehicles. Each year there are tens of thousands of lives lost in traffic accidents in Canada, the U.S., and Mexico. Tens of thousands more are injured and face permanent disability. The victims are disproportionately young males, and alcohol is involved in a high fraction of cases.

24 Suicide About one million people each year commit suicide. As many as 20 times that number attempt suicide. Suicide rates rise through the teen years, peak in young adult ages, plateau in the middle years, and then rise in the older ages. The suicide rate is considerably higher for males than for females around the world.

25 Homicide Homicide rates are highest for young adult males in virtually every country for which data are available. The homicide rate peaks at ages 15 to 24. For white males at this age, the homicide rate in 1998 was 12 per 100,000. Compared with 97 deaths per 100,000 for African-American males at this age.

26 “Real” Causes of Death 1.Tobacco Caused deaths of 19% of the 2,148,000 people who died in the U.S. in Tobacco is linked to: cancer deaths cardiovascular deaths chronic lung disease low birth weight deaths from burning cigarettes

27 “Real” Causes of Death 2.Diet and activity patterns Accounts for 300,000 deaths annually - 14% of the total in Includes high consumption of cholesterol, sodium, and animal fat and a sedentary lifestyle. Contribute to heart disease and stroke, cancers, and diabetes mellitus.

28 “Real” Causes of Death 3.Alcohol Misuse Contributes to death from: Cirrhosis Vehicle accidents Injuries in the home Drowning Fire fatalities

29 Premodern Mortality For most of human history, life expectancy was 20 to 30 years. About 2/3 of babies survived to their first birthday, and about 1/2 were still alive at age five. Around 10% of people made it to age 65.

30 Life Expectancy

31

32 Deadliest Occupations in the U.S., 2002

33 Life Expectancy, U.S., 2001 Race/ethnicityMalesFemales Total population White, non- Hispanic Black, non- Hispanic ** Important note: the Male/Female stats are incorrectly reversed in the text. The stats above are correctly applied. (The text will be corrected in the next reprint.)

34 Life Expectancy, U.S., 2001 Race/ethnicityMalesFemales Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian ** Important note: the Male/Female stats are incorrectly reversed in the text. The stats above are correctly applied. (The text will be corrected in the next reprint.)


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