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1 Marek Perkowski’s Productions present:
Lectures on Embedded Systems and High Level Synthesis and CAD Some slides come from various sources, including Adam Postula, Mark Schulz and U.C. Berkeley

2 ECE 574 Embedded Systems, FPGAs and High Level Synthesis
Dr Marek Perkowski Introduction Grading What is this class about

3 Elementary Project related class
This class teaches about design of high-performance parallel digital systems using FPGAs. Grading is based mostly on practical projects. It is not the old 574 as in the PSU catalog. In past my students got several national awards for their projects. The best projects of this class will be submitted to a competition . Projects Students select software CAD project, (for those who know C/C++), FPGA design project (for those with Verilog/VHDL knowledge), conceptual design project (involves use of CAD tools for analysis and performance comparison of designs)

4 This class has no prerequisite. It is open to all graduate students
Future of IT is characterized by the terms such as Post-PC era Disappearing computer Ubiquitous computing Pervasive computing Ambient intelligence Embedded systems This class has no prerequisite. It is open to all graduate students Typical FPGA design projects: Image processor based on spectral transforms. Advanced controller for a robotic toy. Cellular automaton controller for a robot. Reconfigurable processor for Robot Vision Radon Transform for medical applications Image matching processor Fractal Set Generator

5 This class has no prerequisite. It is open to all graduate students
Future of IT is characterized by the terms such as Post-PC era Disappearing computer Ubiquitous computing Pervasive computing Ambient intelligence Embedded systems This class has no prerequisite. It is open to all graduate students Typical Theory Projects Cellular logic for nanotechnology. Cellular automata for test generation. Advanced FSM decomposition for FPGAs. Scheduling for low power Constraint Satisfaction Computer Oracle Based Computer General Spectral Transform Computer

6 Typical software projects:
B Typical software projects: Use of SAT solver for logic synthesis Logic synthesis with AND and EXOR gates Reversible Automaton synthesis Cellular automaton synthesis Asynchronous design software in Matlab Use of ABC system for low power logic preprocessing Testing reversible circuits Design for test

7 High-Level Synthesis and Design Automation – ECE 574/ECE674
If you have any questions please contact Dr. Marek Perkowski

8

9

10 Related PSU courses that I teach
ECE 479. Robot Perception ECE 574. This class ECE 478. Mobile and Humanoid Robots ECE 479. Robots for Disabled ECE 572. Logic Synthesis ECE 590. VHDL Design ECE 573. Sequential Circuits ECE 510. Quantum Computers ECE 510. Design for Test

11 PSU sequence of classes
This is a complete sequence related to digital logic design automation. Design with VHDL/Verilog Spring ECE 171 ECE 271 Logic Synthesis Sequential Circuits Formal Verification and Design Spring Fall Winter Testing and Design for Test Fall Quantum Computing

12 You will get all slides on my WWW, or they are already there
Do not take notes You will get all slides on my WWW, or they are already there If I am not using slides, please take notes, this may be exam material or project material

13 I do not assume much background knowledge from you
Basic graph theory concepts Basic linear algebra concepts Basic Boolean Logic and state machines Basic knowledge of VHDL or Verilog is welcome but not mandatory Basic programming skills in Basic, Java, Matlab, or C, C++

14 The good news is that I will review much of this background material
Also, there will be additional meetings just to review the material and solve problems. Participation in those meetings is not mandatory, and you can get an A without participating. However, participating will help you in homeworks and projects. Usually Fridays

15 Goals of this class Many of you are using some CAD tools. Do you know what is inside these tools? Here you will learn. Do you want to design better algorithms and software for your specific tasks? This class can help. I will teach both fundamentals and applications. Teach about relations between data structures, algorithms and CAD tools. Examples of my previous projects from US industry (companies like GTE, Sharp, Intel and Cypress) and US government (Wright Laboratories of Air Force) and Polish Government.

16 Goals of this class The algorithms and concepts presented in this class are very general. They can be used in Machine Learning, Testing, Data Mining, Pattern Recognition, and Robotics. We will concentrate on basic algorithms and how to use them for new problems that you may find in your research. In the past students from this and other classes got several awards from Design Automation Conference and ACM. Would you be interested to submit your project to next year competition. If accepted, you have a very good chance for travel and other funds.

17 Objective of Subject Both theory and practical applications.
Students will learn modern EDA (Electronic Design Automation) approaches and fundamentals of building tools Do not be scared of my English. If I speak too quickly, please tell me. I will slow down. I will give you some challenging research problems that nobody solved or even formulated. You can work on them and we can publish them, but it is not mandatory, only for those who like a challenge.

18 Objective of Subject Students will learn about techniques of specifying sequential designs and optimizing them on a Register Transfer Language Level These techniques can be used to Computer, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Image Processing architectures. You can use your own examples. At the end, some recent research and industrial papers from top conferences and journals will be discussed to show the modern research areas. Modern realization technologies will be presented, FPGAs Unified approach to many problems. After completing the class students should be able to create new applications and software for new EDA tools and use new CAD tools for synthesis.

19 Review and Introduction. Basic graph algorithms
What in coming weeks? Look to my WWW Page. Review and Introduction. Basic graph algorithms Representations of Functions, Relations and State Machines. Overview of CAD systems Levels of modeling Basic high level synthesis methodologies

20 Homeworks Homeworks will be to solve practical problems illustrating the algorithms and data structures, such as set covering, graph coloring, shortest path, satisfiability or scheduling. Some homeworks will be to optimize simple processors using methods from the class. One homework will be to create an animated PowerPoint presentation and present it in the class. You may exchange it for creating your WWW Page with a problem solution. Quality of your class presentations and report is important

21 Required Background You are assumed to know, the material presented in ECE 171 and ECE 271 or equivalent This material covered basic Boolean algebra, truth tables, Karnaugh maps (K-maps), simple minimization techniques using Karnaugh maps, and some basic design skills in Boolean algebra. Knowledge of programming in C, C++, Java, Basic, Lisp or similar language is useful but not a must. Everybody will create animated PowerPoint presentations and his WWW Page with a new material and project descriptions.

22 Review. What this first part of the course covers.
Combinational Circuit Design Review of Karnaugh Maps Minimization of combinational logic circuits using Karnaugh Maps CAD Techniques of combinational logic circuit minimization Binary Decision Diagrams

23 Review. What this part of the course covers(cont).
Combinational Circuit Design Functional Decomposition Graph Coloring and Set Covering Techniques MSI building blocks: multiplexers, decoders, ROM’s and PLA’s Arithmetic circuits Introduction to data structures and optimization

24 no final this year in ECE 574
Grading System Homeworks = 40 % Midterm = 15 % Midterm = 15 % Project = 30 % Midterm Examinations (open book, in class) Homeworks, including student presentations, quality of presentations Project: - your choice -- programming assignments theoretical work literature study processor designs using optimization methods from the class On popular demand no final this year in ECE 574

25 MIDTERM EXAMS Open Book Creativity
Remember that both midterm exams are: Open Book Remember that I emphasize in this class not only hard work but also…. Creativity

26 Remember that I really want to help you to be successful in this class and obtain a good grade.
Do not be afraid to speak in English, it is better to speak with mistakes than to avoid communication

27 TEXTBOOK Strongly Recommended
Giovanni De Micheli, Synthesis and Optimization of Digital Circuits. Mc Graw Hill International Editions, Electrical Engineering Series. ISBN This textbook is the most popular in USA and is used in top universities It has many examples and its language is quite easy. Even if you do not understand my English, you can learn from this textbook to get a grade of A in this class. My examples and additional material that I will teach is just to help to illustrate the ideas better. They will be NOT required in homeworks and exams. The material from the book will be on slides. All slides can be printed and used to learn the material. Background Randy Katz, Contemporary Logic Design, Benjamin/Cummings, This book is already used in KAIST.

28 Additional Textbook 3 Styles:
Original hardcover version, Kluwer, 2003, >100 $/€ Reprint, lighter cover borders, thicker paper, same price/ content; Corrections available on web site (see slides) 2nd edition, Springer, "2006", scheduled for end of October 2005, soft cover, with corrections, 37€ 28

29 You will get in pieces More TEXTBOOKS Strongly Recommended
Gary Hachtel and Fabio Somenzi, Logic Synthesis and Verification Algorithms, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. Randy Katz, Contemporary Logic Design, Benjamin/Cummings, 1994 My lecture notes You will get in pieces Useful Capilano Computing, LogicWorks 3, 1995 (includes 3.5” diskette for Windows). This is a simulation program .

30 Other Information There is a WWW Home page for the class. I will keep updating it every day, also to reflect a feedback from you. All PowerPoint 4.0 slides you see here, plus a Postscript printable version with 6 slides per page will be available. Lectures will be available within 24 hours after the lecture is given (mainly because I will be completing the lectures on Sunday nights and Monday mornings prior to the lecture). All sorts of other info will be there as well. Much additional material is on my US webpage, but using it is not mandatory.

31 Other Information Class announcements will appear in the “class schedule” pages of this class at the WWW page of Marek Perkowski. Assignment: Find this page using Google Engine. Type +Perkowski +Marek and next go to “Classes that I teach”

32 Other Information Use Internet Explorer or other to view these pages. Send s with questions. If you are shy to ask in class or want to be anonymous, please leave me a question on a paper sheet before class on the desk. I will post news for class students of this group. I presume that it is read within 2 or 3 working days. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR READING THE NEWS IN CLASS SCHEDULE LINK!

33 Send emails with questions.
Other Information Send s with questions. I will post news for class students of this group. I presume that it is read within 2 or 3 working days. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR READING THE NEWS IN CLASS SCHEDULE LINK!

34 Any Other Administrative Details?
! Now is the time to ask

35 For Advanced Students If it is too easy, do not worry. You can be challenged in the project The class is for everybody. I will go fast through repetition material. More advanced material will soon appear.

36 Embedded Systems

37 What is the Future of Information Technology (IT)?
According to forecasts charac-terized by the terms such as Post-PC era Disappearing computer Ubiquitous computing Pervasive computing Ambient intelligence Embedded systems Von Eröffnungsvorträgen wie diesem hier wird in der Regel ein Einblick in die Zukunft erwartet. Nun, was ist die Zukunft der IT, der Informationstechnologie? Aufgrund praktisch aller Vorhersagen wird die Zukunft der IT v.a. geprägt sein durch die hier aufgeführten Begriffe: Der Begriff „Post-PC era“ hebt hervor, dass Anwendungen auf klassischen PCs verdrängt werden durch IT in anderen Geräten, von denen hier beispielhaft einige Anwendungsbereiche zu sehen sind. Der Begriff „disappearing computer“ hebt hervor, dass computer künftig nicht direkt sichtbar sein werden, dass sie vielmehr im Verborgenen arbeiten werden. Der Begriff „ubiquitous computing“ betont die Allgegenwart der künftigen IT, die allerdings mehr in Form von Kommunikation denn in Form von Berechnungen gegeben sein wird. Der durchdringende Charakter künftiger IT wird v.a. bei dem Begriff “Pervasive computing” in den Vordergrund gestellt. Derselbe Charakter wird auch bei der Bezeichnung „ambient intelligence“ unterstrichen. Für mich stellen diese Begriffe in jedem Fall Weiterentwicklungen des Gebiets der eingebetteten Systeme dar. In jedem Fall wird auf Basistechniken der eingebetteten Systeme aufgebaut. Eingebettete Systeme stellen damit auf jeden Fall die Grundlagen für all diese zukünftigen Anwendungsbereiche der IT dar. Ich möchte mich in meinem Vortrag daher v.a. mit solchen eingebetteten Systemen beschäftigen. preface

38 What is an embedded system?
Wie kann man eingebettete Systeme nun eigentlich definieren? …..

39 Embedded Systems Embedded systems (ES) = information processing systems embedded into a larger product ! Main reason for buying is not information processing

40 Embedded systems and ubiquitous computing
Ubiquitous computing: Information anytime, anywhere. Embedded systems provide fundamental technology. UMTS,

41 Application Areas of Embedded Systems

42 Application areas (1) Automotive electronics Aircraft electronics
Trains Telecommunication 1.2 Application areas

43 Application areas (2) Medical systems e.g. “artificial eye”
[www.dobelle.com]

44 Application areas (3) Military applications Authentication
Authentication Hot topic – antiterrorist technologies

45 Application areas (4) Consumer electronics

46 Application areas (5) Fabrication equipment Smart buildings
Show movie 2003/keynotes/index.htm

47 Application areas (6) Robotics „Pipe-climber“
Robot „Johnnie“ (Courtesy and ©: H.Ulbrich, F. Pfeiffer, TU München) Show movie of 2-legged robot(s)

48 Some embedded systems from real life
Examples Some embedded systems from real life

49 Smart Beer Glass Capacitive sensor for fluid level 8-bit, 8-pin PIC processor Contact less transmission of power and readings Inductive coil for RF ID activation & power CPU and reading coil in the table. Reports the level of fluid in the glass, alerts servers when close to empty © Jakob Engblom

50 Smart Beer Glass Typical embedded solution
Integrates several technologies: Radio transmissions Sensor technology Magnetic inductance for power Computer used for calibration Impossible without the computer Meaningless without the electronics © Jakob Engblom

51 Pedometer Obvious computer work: Hard computer work: Count steps
Keep time Averages etc. Hard computer work: Actually identify when a step is taken Sensor feels motion of device, not of user feet © Jakob Engblom

52 Mobile phones Multiprocessor 8-bit/32-bit for user interface
DSP for signals 32-bit in IR port 32-bit in Bluetooth 8-100 MB of memory All custom chips Power consumption & battery life depends on software © Jakob Engblom

53 Mobile base station Massive signal processing Based on DSPs
Several processing tasks per connected mobile phone Based on DSPs Standard or custom 100s of processors © Jakob Engblom

54 Telecom Switch Rack-based Optical & copper connections
Control cards IO cards DSP cards ... Optical & copper connections Digital & analog signals © Jakob Engblom

55 Smart Welding Machine Electronics control voltage & speed of wire feed
Adjusts to operator kHz sample rate 1000s of decisions/second Perfect weld even for quite clumsy operators Easier-to-use product, but no obvious computer Schweißen © Jakob Engblom

56 Sewing Machine User interface ”Smart”
Embroidery patterns Touch-screen control ”Smart” Sets pressure of “foot” depending on task Raise foot when stopped New functions added by upgrading the software Stickerei © Jakob Engblom

57 Forestry Machines © Jakob Engblom

58 Forestry Machines Networked computer system Processors
Controlling arms & tools Navigating the forest Recording the trees harvested Crucial to efficient work Processors 16-bit processors in a network © Jakob Engblom

59 Operator Panel in this machine
Embedded PC Graphical display Touch panel Joystick Buttons Keyboard But tough enough to be “out in the woods” © Jakob Engblom

60 Cars Multiple processors Multiple networks Up to 100
Networked together Multiple networks Body, engine, telematics, media, safety © Jakob Engblom

61 Cars Functions by embedded processing: ABS: Anti-lock braking systems
ESP: Electronic stability control Airbags Efficient automatic gearboxes Theft prevention with smart keys Blind-angle alert systems ... etc ... © Jakob Engblom

62 Cars Large diversity in processor types: Form follows function
8-bit – door locks, lights, etc. 16-bit – most functions 32-bit – engine control, airbags Form follows function Processing where the action is Sensors and actuators distributed all over the vehicle © Jakob Engblom

63 Extremely Large Embedded Systems
Functions requiring computers: Radar Weapons Damage control Navigation basically everything Computers: Large servers 1000s of processors © Jakob Engblom

64 Inside your PC Custom processors 32-bit processors 8-bit processors
Graphics, sound 32-bit processors IR, Bluetooth Network, WLAN Harddisk RAID controllers 8-bit processors USB Keyboard, mouse © Jakob Engblom

65 If you want to play Lego mindstorms robotics kit
Standard controller 8-bit processor 64 kB of memory Electronics to interface to motors and sensors Good way to learn embedded systems We use new Lego NXT and Tetrix, just introduced © Jakob Engblom

66 Some of our ES Projects at WTU, UofM and PSU 1967 - 2004
Ovulo-computer PSUBOT – mobile robot with AI control for handicapped (award) Logic Design Machine (DAC Scholarship Award 1992) PLD programmer (national award) PID controller CCM (paper and DAC Scholarship Award) Decomposition Machine (paper) SAT solver (paper) FFT matcher Hough Transform (3 papers) Radon Transform Processor Mandelbrot Set Fractal Processor 2008 Robot Controller for Image Processing Tracking System 2008 ESOP minimizer (paper) FPAA (patent 1999) Teeth measurement device (patent 1997)

67 Embedded systems overview
Embedded computing systems Computing systems embedded within electronic devices Hard to define. Nearly any computing system other than a desktop computer Billions of units produced yearly, versus millions of desktop units Perhaps 50 per household and per automobile Computers are in here... and here... and even here... Lots more of these, though they cost a lot less each. 67

68 A “short list” of embedded systems
Anti-lock brakes Auto-focus cameras Automatic teller machines Automatic toll systems Automatic transmission Avionic systems Battery chargers Camcorders Cell phones Cell-phone base stations Cordless phones Cruise control Curbside check-in systems Digital cameras Disk drives Electronic card readers Electronic instruments Electronic toys/games Factory control Fax machines Fingerprint identifiers Home security systems Life-support systems Medical testing systems Modems MPEG decoders Network cards Network switches/routers On-board navigation Pagers Photocopiers Point-of-sale systems Portable video games Printers Satellite phones Scanners Smart ovens/dishwashers Speech recognizers Stereo systems Teleconferencing systems Televisions Temperature controllers Theft tracking systems TV set-top boxes VCR’s, DVD players Video game consoles Video phones Washers and dryers And the list goes on and on 68

69 Education Areas

70 Concept of ES education at Dortmund
programming algorithms computer organization math education electrical networks & digital circuits first course on embedded systems lab control systems DSP machine vision real-time systems project group applications Lego Can typically be taught in 4th or 5th term Provides motivation and context of other work in the area Mix of students and courses from CS and EE departments

71 Structure of the CS curriculum at Dortmund - current 4
Structure of the CS curriculum at Dortmund - current 4.5 year diploma program - Term 1 Computer organization Programming & semantics Math education 2 Circuits & communication OS Algorithms 3 HW lab Networks SW lab 4 Databases 5 Embedded systems fundamentals Software engineering 6 Advanced topic in ES 7 Project group 8 9 Thesis All dependences met

72 Structure of the course by Marwedel

73 Broad scope avoids problems with narrow perspectives reported in ARTIST curriculum guidelines
“The lack of maturity of the domain results in a large variety of industrial practices, often due to cultural habits” “curricula … concentrate on one technique and do not present a sufficiently wide perspective.” “As a result, industry has difficulty finding adequately trained engineers, fully aware of design choices.” Source: ARTIST network of excellence: Guidelines for a Graduate Curriculum on Embedded Software and Systems, /Education/Education.pdf, 2003

74 Scope consistent with ARTIST guidelines
"The development of ES cannot ignore the underlying HW characteristics. Timing, memory usage, power consumption, and physical failures are important." "It seems that fundamental bases are really difficult to acquire during continuous training if they haven’t been initially learned, and we must focus on them."

75 Slides of Marwedel Slides are available at: kluwer-es-book Master format: Powerpoint; Derived formats: OpenOffice, PDF Changes for term of winter 2005/6: Additional "more in-depth sections". Selected updates. Improved B/W printing. Course announcements

76 Importance of Embedded Systems

77 Growing importance of embedded systems (1)
Growing economical importance of embedded systems THE growing market according to forecasts, e.g.: Worldwide mobile phone sales surpassed mln units in Q2 2004, a 35% increase from Q2 2003, according to Gartner [www.itfacts.biz] The worldwide portable flash player market exploded in 2003 and is expected to grow from 12.5 mln units in 2003 to over 50 mln units in 2008 [www.itfacts.biz] Global 3G subscribers will grow from an estimated 45 mln at the end of 2004 to 85 mln in 2005, according to Wireless World Forum. [www.itfacts.biz] Was bedeutet der Trend hin zu Eingebetteten Systemen nun konkret für die Märkte und wie lässt sich daraus eine Motivation für die Vorträge hier in Freiburg gewinnen? Generell bieten Eingebettete Systeme Wachstumsbereiche, wie es sie woanders kaum noch gibt. Einige Vorhersagen zeigt diese Folie: Trotz eines schon relativ hohen Umsatzes wurde bei der Anzahl der verkauften Mobilfunkgeräte vom 2.Quartal 2003 zum 2. Quartual 2004 noch eine Steigerung von 35% erreicht. Der Markt der portablen Musikabspielgeräte auf Flashspeicher-Basis soll sich von 2003 bis 2008 vervierfachen. Und schließlich soll die Anzahl der Teilnehmer beim Mobilfunk der dritten Generation von 45 Mill. Ende diesen Jahres auf 85 Mill. Ende nächsten Jahres steigen, d.h. es soll eine Steigerung um fast 100% geben. Nicht unerwähnt lassen möchte ich dabei allerdings, dass dies teilweise zu Lasten der Geräte der 2. Generation geht. 1.3 … importance

78 Growing importance of embedded systems (2)
The number of broadband lines worldwide increased by almost 55% to over 123 mln in the 12 months to the end of June 2004, according to Point-Topic. [www.itfacts.biz] Today's DVR (digital video recorders) users - 5% of households - will grow to 41% within five years, according to Forrester. [www.itfacts.biz] The automotive sector … ensures the employment of more than 4 million people in Europe only. Altogether, some 8 million jobs in total depend on the fortunes of the transport industry and related sectors - representing around 7 per cent of the European Union’s Gross National Product (GNP) [OMI bulletin] Weitere drastische Steigerungen sehen Sie auf dieser Folie: Die Anzahl der Breitband-Anschlüsse hat sich danach im vergangenen Jahr um 55% erhöht. Für die neuen digitalen Videorekorder erwartet man innerhalb von 5 Jahren eine Marktdurchdringung von 41%, bei jetzt 5%. Die Bedeutung der eingebetteten Systeme lässt sich auch anhand der Zahl der Arbeitsplätze belegen, die indirekt von ihnen abhängen. So sind im Automobilbereich in Europa ca. 4 Mill. Personen beschäftigt und 8 Mill. Arbeitsplätze hängen indirekt davon ab. Dieser Bereich macht 7 % des GNP aus. Dabei hängt er derzeit zum guten Teil auch von der erfolgreichen Entwicklung der Eingebetteten Systeme in Fahrzeugen ab. Dasselbe gilt für andere Industriebereiche, etwa den Eisenbahn- oder Flugzeugbau. Man kann daher sagen: Ohne funktionierende Entwicklung Eingebetteter Systeme sähe es in Europa hinsichtlich der Arbeitsplätze noch wesentlich düsterer aus als derzeit. Die Entwicklung muss funktionieren. Anders ausgedrückt: the future is embedded and embedded is the future!

79 Growing importance of embedded systems (3)
.. but embedded chips form the backbone of the electronics driven world in which we live ... they are part of almost everything that runs on electricity [Mary Ryan, EEDesign, 1995] 79% of all high-end processors are used in embedded systems The future is embedded, Embedded is the future! Foundation for the „post PC era“ ES hardly discussed in other CS courses ES important for Technical University Scope: sets context for specialized courses Importance of education 1.3 … importance

80 Characteristics of Embedded Systems

81 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (1)
Must be dependable, Reliability R(t) = probability of system working correctly provided that is was working at t=0 Maintainability M(d) = probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. Availability A(t): probability of system working at time t Safety: no harm to be caused Security: confidential and authentic communication Even perfectly designed systems can fail if the assumptions about the workload and possible errors turn out to be wrong. Making the system dependable must not be an after-thought, it must be considered from the very beginning 1.1 terms and scope

82 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (2)
Must be efficient Energy efficient Code-size efficient (especially for systems on a chip) Run-time efficient Weight efficient Cost efficient Dedicated towards a certain application Knowledge about behavior at design time can be used to minimize resources and to maximize robustness Dedicated user interface (no mouse, keyboard and screen)

83 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (3)
Many ES must meet real-time constraints A real-time system must react to stimuli from the controlled object (or the operator) within the time interval dictated by the environment. For real-time systems, right answers arriving too late are wrong. „A real-time constraint is called hard, if not meeting that constraint could result in a catastrophe“ [Kopetz, 1997]. All other time-constraints are called soft. A guaranteed system response has to be explained without statistical arguments

84 Real-Time Systems Embedded and Real-Time
Synonymous? Most embedded systems are real-time Most real-time systems are embedded embedded embedded real-time real-time © Jakob Engblom

85 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (4)
Frequently connected to physical environment through sensors and actuators, Hybrid systems (analog + digital parts). Typically, ES are reactive systems: „A reactive system is one which is in continual interaction with is environment and executes at a pace determined by that environment“ [Bergé, 1995] Behavior depends on input and current state.  automata model appropriate, model of computable functions inappropriate.

86 Characteristics of Embedded Systems (5)
ES are underrepresented in teaching and public discussions: „Embedded chips aren‘t hyped in TV and magazine ads ... [Mary Ryan, EEDesign, 1995] Not every ES has all of the above characteristics. Def.: Information processing systems having most of the above characteristics are called embedded systems. Course on embedded systems makes sense because of the number of common characteristics.

87 Challenges of Embedded Systems

88 Quite a number of challenges, e.g. dependability
Non-real time protocols used for real-time applications (e.g. fire departments) Over-simplification of models (e.g. aircraft anti-collision system) Using unsafe systems for safety-critical missions (e.g. voice control system in Los Angeles; ~ 800 planes without voice connection to tower for > 3 hrs Können wir jetzt mit all den Eigenschaften ErSe problemlos umgehen? Wir sieht es bspw. mit der Verlässlichkeit aus? Zunächst ist grundsätzlich bekannt, dass Entwicklungstechniken fehlen. Dies schlägt sich auch in konkreten Fehlschlägen nieder. Ich will hier nicht schon wieder von toll collect reden, da dieses System immerhin noch niemanden gefährdet hat, außer vielleicht auf seinem Posten, und das zu Recht. Wenn man anfängt, zumindest einige Informationen über Fehlschläge zu sammeln, dann wird diese recht schnell lang. Ich möchte hier beispielsweise das Meldungssystem der Berliner Feuerwehr nennen, dass in der Sylvesternacht 2000 vollständig ausfiel, sodass schließlich die Polizei mit Straßen-Patrouillen nach Bränden Ausschau halten musste. Zu den Ursachen gehört dabei u.a. die Verwendung nicht realzeitfähiger Ethernetprotokolle für Realzeitanwendungen. Hier in Freiburg beachtenswert ist die Untersuchung des Zusammenstoßes der beiden Flugzeuge nahes des Bodensees. Bei dieser Gelegenheit wurde bekannt, dass die Anti-Kollisions-systeme in Flugzeugen generell nur 2 Flugzeuge betrachten. Konfliktsituationen zwischen 3 und mehr Flugzeugen sind überhaupt nicht vorgesehen! Besondere Beachtung fand kürzlich der Fall eines französischen Autofahrers, dessen Geschwindigkeitsregelung das Fahrzeug konstant bei 190 bis 200 km/h hielt, bis nach 1 Stunde das Fahrzeug zum Stillstand gebracht werden konnte. Im security Bereich bereit weiterhin das Fehlen einer sicheren Identifikation von Absendern ein Problem.

89 Challenges for implementation in hardware
Lack of flexibility (changing standards). Mask cost for specialized HW becomes very expensive Trend towards implementation in Software 2010 [http://www.molecularimprints.com/Technology/ tech_articles/MII_COO_NIST_2001.PDF9]

90 Importance of Embedded Software and Embedded Processors
“... the New York Times has estimated that the average American comes into contact with about 60 micro-processors every day....” [Camposano, 1996] The average American does not drive a BMW! Most of the functionality will be implemented in software Latest top-level BMWs contain over 100 micro- processors [Marwedel, 2003]

91 Challenges for implementation in software
If embedded systems will be implemented mostly in software, then why don‘t we just use what software engineers have come up with?

92 Software complexity is a challenge
Exponential increase in software complexity In some areas code size is doubling every 9 months [ST Microelectronics, Medea Workshop, Fall 2003] ... > 70% of the development cost for complex systems such as automotive electronics and communication systems are due to software development [A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, 1999] Zu den Problemen gehört auch die konkrete Entwicklung eingebetteter Systeme: Applikationsspezifische Hardware kann in vielen Fällen nicht mehr eingesetzt werden, sei es wegen der hohen Kosten der Maskenherstellung bei fortgeschrittenen Technologien, sei es weil Algorithmen heute flexibel gehalten werden müssen und eine Änderung nach Auslieferung in vielen Bereichen unumgänglich wird. Allerdings ist auch die Entwicklung von Software nicht ohne Probleme. Aufgrund der Komplexität steigen die Kosten für die Entwicklung von Software stark an und sie machen in manchen Bereichen, wie hier für den Automobilbereich genannt, bereits einen hohen Prozentsatz der Kosten überhaupt aus. Weiter ist auch der stark steigende Umfang von Software ein Problem. Am Beispiel von Software in Fernsehern hat man einen exponentiell steigenden Umfang festgestellt. In manchen Bereichen steigt die Komplexität auf geradezu dramatische Weise. So wurde beispielsweise von ST Microelektronics berichtet, dass sich der Umfang an Software teilweise alle 9 Monate verdoppelt. Rob van Ommering, COPA Tutorial, as cited by: Gerrit Müller: Opportunities and challenges in embedded systems, Eindhoven Embedded Systems Institute, 2004

93 More challenges for embedded software
Dynamic environments Capture the required behaviour! Validate specifications Efficient translation of specifications into implementations! How can we check that we meet real- time constraints? How do we validate embedded real- time software? (large volumes of data, testing may be safety-critical) Diese Komplexität ist daher auch ein Element in dieser Liste der Probleme mit eingebetteter Software. Dazu gehört weiter das Problem der sich rasch ändernden Umgebungen, für die existierende Protokolle vielfach nicht ausgelegt sind. Trotz neuer Technologien sind die Bandbreiten der Kommunikation in solchen Umgebungen begrenzt und die Verbindungen häufig nur temporär vorhanden. ….

94 It is not sufficient to consider ES just as a special case of software engineering
EE knowledge must be available, Walls between EE and CS must be torn down CS EE Zu den Problemen bei der Entwicklung eingebetteter Systeme gehört weiterhin, dass eigentlich eine enge Kooperation zwischen der Informatik und der Elektrotechnik erforderlich wäre. Ich habe einmal versucht, dies besonders drastisch darzustellen. <click> Nach wie vor gelingt, es aber immer noch nicht in dem erforderlichen Maß, die Wände einzureißen. Das Umbenennen von Fakultäten und Lehrstühlen stellt keinen wirklichen Fortschritt dar. Es gibt Ansätze der Kooperation, aber immer noch kann man meist erkennen, ob jemand „von Haus aus“ Informatiker oder Elektrotechniker ist.

95 Summary of ES introduction
Definition of embedded systems Application areas Examples Curriculum Characteristics Reliability Growing importance of embedded systems Challenges in embedded system design

96 First Part of First Homework
Write a short essay Which types of embedded systems are most interesting to you and why? What kind of project you are interested in? How can your project contribute to society? Challenges of your project as part of embedded system design challenges.

97 General Architecture of a Digital System
Input signals Output signals Control Unit Data Path D/A A/D Memory

98 From ASIC to system on a chip

99 NAND Source gate drain VDD c a b W L drain gate source

100 Accumulator

101 Multiplexer ALU

102 Memory Register

103

104 Finite State Machines S4, 11 S3, 10 S2, 01 S1, 00 A=1 A=0 A=0

105 Design PCB or realize in an FPGA/PLD
In our projects we will use FPGA and GPU. Boards exist. No PCB design

106 Short Review of AND/OR and AND/EXOR Logics
A  A = 0 A  A’ = 1 A  1=A’ A’  1=A A  0=A A  B= B  A A B = B A A(B  C) = AB  AC A+B = A  B  AB A+B = A  B when AB = 0 A  (B  C) = (A  B)  C (A B) C = A (B C) A+B = A  B  AB = A B(1  A) = A  BA’ AND/EXOR These rules are sufficient to minimize Exclusive Sum of Product expression for small number of variables We will use these rules in the class for all kinds of reversible, quantum, optical, etc. logic. Try to remember them or put them to your “creepsheet”.

107 Natural number of the cell
1 1 1 This ESOP is : W’X’YZ 1 1 Learn how to design graphically such solutions 1

108 Short Review of Exor Logic
A  A = 0 A  A’ = 1 A  1=A’ A’  1=A A  0=A A  B= B  A A B = B A A(B  C) = AB  AC A+B = A  B  AB A+B = A  B when AB = 0 A  (B  C) = (A  B)  C (A B) C = A (B C) A+B = A  B  AB = A B(1  A) = A  BA’ These rules are sufficient to minimize Exclusive Sum of Product expression for small number of variables We will use these rules in the class for all kinds of reversible, quantum, optical, etc. logic. Try to remember them or put them to your “creepsheet”.

109 Natural number of the cell
1 1 1 This ESOP is : W’X’YZ 1 1 Learn how to design graphically such solutions 1

110 Karnaugh Map 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

111 Karnaugh Map for SOP AND/OR

112

113 Homework number 1 (Due Monday)
Second Part of First Homework Design an adder of two 3-bit numbers. Synthesize as an ESOP or factorized ESOP. Minimize graphically, algebraically, describe hierarchically or using VHDL/Verilog. Draw the circuit.

114 Please review Karnaugh Maps (Kmaps, for short) for 2,3,4 and 5 variables. The adjacent cells - geometrically and in the sense of Hamming distance. Enumeration of cells (minterms) Don’t care minterms and how to use them How to find prime implicants How to find Sum-of-Products (SOP) Covers of sets of true minterms with prime implicants. What are essential prime implicants and distinct vertices. Distinct vertices are minterms that are covered by only one prime Essential primes are primes that cover distinct vertices

115 What else should you review for next time?
Please review the Kmap, implicants and covering from any undergraduate textbook such as Roth or Katz Review basic Boolean algebra, De Morgan rules, factorization and flip-flops (D,T,JK). You should be able to take arbitrary Kmap of 5 variables, truth table, netlist or expression and convert it to a truth table or Kmap. Next you should be able to minimize it and draw a schematic with gates such as EXOR, NAND, NOR, etc. You should be able to reformulate problem expressed in English as a Boolean minimization or decision problem. SOP and ESOP logic and circuits. These are the minimum information to start practical design problems.

116 Questions for Review and Exams
Give a definition of Embedded Systems List your ideas about applications of Embedded Systems for: Autistic children therapy and diagnosis Alcoholics and addicts therapy and diagnosis Mountaineers Exercising equipment Any other area of life where ES are not yet much used, think about human benefit What are real time systems? Think about ES that are big state machines. List them Think about sensors that may be used with ES? How much do they cost? Think about effectors that are used in ES? Their cost and where to get them? What are the biggest challenges of Embedded Systems reasearch? What are the challenges of practical design of ES that takes economics into account?

117 Embedded Systems Slides of Peter Marweded andJakob Engblom are used
Graphics: © Alexandra Nolte, Gesine Marwedel, 2003 Some slides come from various sources, including Adam Postula, Mark Schulz and U.C. Berkeley


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