Presentation on theme: "Julius Caesar Youth Peter Scully With video by: Aaron Bugg Bill Callahan Patrick Hanthorn By: 100? — 44 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
Julius Caesar Youth Peter Scully With video by: Aaron Bugg Bill Callahan Patrick Hanthorn By: 100? — 44 B.C.
Gaius was his given name, one of only eight names which could be given to boys. Julius was the family name. The name of Gaius’ branch of the Julius family was “Caesar,” which originally meant “hairy.” Gaius Julius Caesar His Name Hair.
The Julius family claimed to be descended from Romulus, Aeneas, and thence Venus, which would make them all partly divine. However, his immediate family was anything but godlike. Although patricians, the Caesars were so poor that they lived among the plebeians in an insula (bad apartment) in the Subura, a very poor part of Rome.
For all of his political ties, there had been no consul in Caesar’s immediate family for years. The Caesars had a good name among the upper class, but that was all. Young Caesar would have associated with both plebeians and patricians. Thus he would have been ambitious, but would have realized that one needs both the senate and the people to become truly powerful.
Apart from this, Caesar had a healthy family life. Historians say that he had a very good mother, Aurelia, whom he loved very much. His father was something of a nobody, though he did serve as praetor, and he died when Caesar was 15. It is likely that Caesar was beaten as a child, but this was not uncommon, as strict obedience was extremely important to the Roman family at the time.
He did have some very prominent relatives, however. His uncle by marriage was none other than six time consul Gaius Marius. Marius’ fame and fortune would help to get the Caesars back on track. Uncle Marius
Marius’ protégé, Lucius Cornelius Sulla was a very ambitious man. He proved himself at least equal to Marius throughout the wars they fought together. Marius became jealous and had him transferred to the general Catulus, under whom he achieved even more greatness. Later, when Sulla returned to Rome after much political success in the East, he took charge of the opposition to Marius in the senate. The Villain
The tension built up nearly to an open riot, when a series of revolts on the Italian peninsula intervened. These revolts, called the Social War, called many of Rome’s generals (including Marius and Sulla) to the field. Sulla outshone them all, and he was elected consul in 88 B.C.
As consul, Sulla decided to take an army to Asia Minor in an attempt to conquer Bithynia Insanely jealous, Marius pulled some strings in the senate and was granted command of the army himself. Sulla was furious when he learned of the decision. Rather than calmly return the army, he marched on Rome.
In 87 B.C., Marius and his ally Cinna captured Rome and massacred many of Sulla’s supporters. Sulla went into exile. The teenage Julius Caesar was named Flamen Dialis, high priest of Jupiter, for life. This is an extremely prestigious position, full of wealth and ritual. However, the Flamen Dialis could not touch metal, ride a horse, or see a corpse; so obviously Caesar didn’t stay long.
Marius was elected consul for the seventh and final time, along with his ally, Cinna. Shortly after, Marius died. Cinna took over the faction against Sulla. Caesar married Cinna’s daughter, Cornelia, making him the son in law of Sulla’s worst enemy. Caesar was in a dangerous position. With Marius dead, he would have to be careful and protect himself from Sulla.
When Cinna died in 81 B.C., Sulla marched on Rome one last time. He defeated the last of Marius’ supporters at the battle of Colline Gate in the outskirts of Rome herself. He was helped in this battle by both Pompey and Crassus. Sulla assumed supreme executive power, naming himself dictator, much like Julius Caesar would do just years later in crossing the Rubicon.
Sulla, now dictator, demanded publicly that Caesar divorce Cornelia. Caesar refused. Sulla stripped Caesar of the title Flamen Dialis and impounded Cornelia’s dowry. Caesar’s friends and relatives among the Vestal Virgins persuaded Sulla not to kill Caesar. “In releasing Julius Caesar, the world will one day find him more dangerous than Gaius Marius.” Although Sulla reportedly said:
Caesar joined the army in Asia Minor, where he earned the corona civica, the highest personal honor attainable by a legionnaire. He was given many public honors, such as being allowed to wear a laurel crown on all occasions and to sit on the senate without age restriction. Although officially pardoned, Caesar thought it wise to leave Italy.
There was a rumor among the Roman troops of the region that Caesar was gay. Once when he was sent to gather a fleet from the king of Bithynia, he spent so much time at his court that he was accused of improper relations with the king. Hence the references to him as the “Queen of Bithynia” Some historians believe that this is why he was such a womanizer later in life—to dispel this rumor that had followed him from his youth.
Caesar returned to Rome and slowly began to climb the cursus honorem. It was said of him that he was second only to Cicero in eloquence. In 77 B.C., Caesar successfully prosecuted the ex-consul Dolabella for extortion during his governorship. Caesar had begun to make a name for himself in Rome
Sorry. Mediterranean And now a story to illustrate the type of man Caesar had become.
On his way to Rhodes to study rhetoric in 76 B.C., Caesar was captured by pirates. While waiting for the ransom money to arrive, he was friendly with his captors. Immediately on his release Caesar saw to it that the pirates were hunted down and crucified.
“Ancient Rome Video I.” The History Channel series, hosted by Joe Mantegna. Fuller, JFC. Julius Caesar, Man, Soldier, and Tyrant. Reprint ed. Da Capo publications, 1991. http://heraklia.fws1.com/early_life/index.html