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ß-Proteobacteria Nikki Antonious Carol Ann Becker Mallory Longfield Meredith Rosenberger Melanie Schwer 3/25/09.

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Presentation on theme: "ß-Proteobacteria Nikki Antonious Carol Ann Becker Mallory Longfield Meredith Rosenberger Melanie Schwer 3/25/09."— Presentation transcript:

1 ß-Proteobacteria Nikki Antonious Carol Ann Becker Mallory Longfield Meredith Rosenberger Melanie Schwer 3/25/09

2 What is ß-Proteobacteria? What is ß-Proteobacteria? Beta bacteria is a class in the phylum Proteobacteria which consists of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which gather nutrients from the decomposition of organic material. Beta bacteria is a class in the phylum Proteobacteria which consists of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which gather nutrients from the decomposition of organic material.

3 Characteristics Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria Aerobic, rod- or cocci- shaped Aerobic, rod- or cocci- shaped Responsible for nitrogen fixation in plants Responsible for nitrogen fixation in plants Oxidizing ammonium to produce nitrite for plant function Oxidizing ammonium to produce nitrite for plant function Most move using flagella or bacterial gliding Most move using flagella or bacterial gliding

4 Mechanism of Infection Betaproteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Most human pathogens invade epithelial cells Most human pathogens invade epithelial cells Gram-negative cell wall Gram-negative cell wall Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in outer membrane Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in outer membrane O polysaccharides – act as antigens O polysaccharides – act as antigens Lipid A – endotoxin; toxic upon entrance of hosts bloodstream or GI tract  fever and shock Lipid A – endotoxin; toxic upon entrance of hosts bloodstream or GI tract  fever and shock Outer membrane acts as a barrier to some antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin) and digestive enzymes Outer membrane acts as a barrier to some antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin) and digestive enzymes

5 Gram Negative Cell Wall Tortora, Funke, and Case. Microbiology: An Introduction.

6 Schematic Schematic

7 Thiobacillus Are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (chemoautotrophic) Are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (chemoautotrophic) Important in the sulfur cycle Important in the sulfur cycle Obtain energy by oxidizing the reduced forms of sulfur into sulfate Obtain energy by oxidizing the reduced forms of sulfur into sulfate ate/2006/10

8 Zoogloea Important in the context of aerobic sewage- treatment processes (e.g. sludge system) Important in the context of aerobic sewage- treatment processes (e.g. sludge system) As they grow, they form fluffy, slimy masses that are imperative to the proper functioning of such systems As they grow, they form fluffy, slimy masses that are imperative to the proper functioning of such systems

9 Spirillium Mainly fresh water Mainly fresh water Motile by polar flagella, rather than axial filaments Motile by polar flagella, rather than axial filaments Relatively large microbe Relatively large microbe

10 Route of Transmission Spirillum minus Spirillum minus Rat-Bite Fever (RBF) Rat-Bite Fever (RBF) acute febrile illness accompanied by a skin rash acute febrile illness accompanied by a skin rash Sporadic cases have been reported in children without histories of direct rodent contact but who lived in rat-infested dwellings Sporadic cases have been reported in children without histories of direct rodent contact but who lived in rat-infested dwellings passed from rodent to human via the rodent's urine or mucous secretions passed from rodent to human via the rodent's urine or mucous secretions

11 Sphaerotilus Sheathed bacteria Sheathed bacteria Found in freshwater and in sewage Found in freshwater and in sewage Moves by polar flagella Moves by polar flagella erotilus_natans.htm

12 Burkholderia Reclassified from Pseudomonas Reclassified from Pseudomonas Motile by a single polar flagellum Motile by a single polar flagellum Best known species is the aerobic, gram- negative rod Burkholderia cepacia. Best known species is the aerobic, gram- negative rod Burkholderia cepacia.

13 Clinical Importance Animal, human, and plant pathogens Animal, human, and plant pathogens Found in soil and groundwater Found in soil and groundwater High mortality rate High mortality rate Potential biological warfare agents Potential biological warfare agents Pathogenic species include: Pathogenic species include: Burkholderia mallei which causes glanders Burkholderia mallei which causes glanders Burkholderia pseudomallei which causes melioidosis and Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia pseudomallei which causes melioidosis and Burkholderia cepacia

14 Burkholderia mallei Glanders Glanders Mainly a horse disease but can affect humans Mainly a horse disease but can affect humans Illness includes localized, pus-forming cutaneous infections, pulmonary infections, bloodstream infections, and chronic suppurative infections of the skin Illness includes localized, pus-forming cutaneous infections, pulmonary infections, bloodstream infections, and chronic suppurative infections of the skin Symptoms include fever, muscle aches, chest pain, muscle tightness and headache. Symptoms include fever, muscle aches, chest pain, muscle tightness and headache.

15 Route of Transmission Introduced into horse populations by diseased or latently infected animals Introduced into horse populations by diseased or latently infected animals Transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. Transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. The bacteria enter the body through the skin and through mucosal surfaces of the eyes and nose. The bacteria enter the body through the skin and through mucosal surfaces of the eyes and nose. Transmission is facilitated if the animals share feeding troughs or watering facilities or if they nuzzle each other Transmission is facilitated if the animals share feeding troughs or watering facilities or if they nuzzle each other Burkholderia mallei

16 Glanders Treatment Initial intravenous therapy for 2-3 weeks Initial intravenous therapy for 2-3 weeks Prevent reactivation by using oral combination antibiotic of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) aka Bactrim Prevent reactivation by using oral combination antibiotic of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) aka Bactrim Mallein Serum injected in uninfected horses produces antibodies against P. mallei Mallein Serum injected in uninfected horses produces antibodies against P. mallei Allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity Allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity

17 Clinical Importance: Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis (Whitmore’s Disease) Melioidosis (Whitmore’s Disease) Found in tropical climates Found in tropical climates Acute or chronic forms Acute or chronic forms Diagnosed from the blood, urine, sputum, or skin lesions. Diagnosed from the blood, urine, sputum, or skin lesions. Symptoms may include pain in chest, bones, or joints; cough; skin infections, lung nodules and pneumonia Symptoms may include pain in chest, bones, or joints; cough; skin infections, lung nodules and pneumonia

18 Route of Transmission Melioidosis Direct contact Direct contact ingestion ingestion Inhalation Inhalation through open wounds and skin abrasions. through open wounds and skin abrasions. Human-to-human and animal-to-human transmission is rare but can occur after contact with blood or body fluids Human-to-human and animal-to-human transmission is rare but can occur after contact with blood or body fluids Burkholderia pseudomallei colonies on a blood agar plate.

19 Mechanism of Infection Causes ulcers in skin and nasal mucosa which can lead to septicemia Causes ulcers in skin and nasal mucosa which can lead to septicemia Pili assist in adherence to mucosal epithelial surfaces Pili assist in adherence to mucosal epithelial surfaces Use phages to infect hosts Use phages to infect hosts Virulence factors include: exotoxins, siderophores, and enzymes (lipases, catalases, proteases) Virulence factors include: exotoxins, siderophores, and enzymes (lipases, catalases, proteases) Pathogenesis is poorly understood Pathogenesis is poorly understood

20 Clinical Importance: Burkholderia cepacia Opportunistic pathogen Opportunistic pathogen Infects hospitalized patients Infects hospitalized patients Causes urinary tract and respiratory diseases Causes urinary tract and respiratory diseases Causes pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals Causes pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals Cystic fibrosis or chronic granulomatous disease Cystic fibrosis or chronic granulomatous disease Deteriorates lung function Deteriorates lung function

21 Pneumonia Treatment Intravenous treatment of multiple antibiotics using PICC line Intravenous treatment of multiple antibiotics using PICC line Vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin. Vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin. Inhaled therapy with antibiotics improves lung function Inhaled therapy with antibiotics improves lung function Oral antibiotics help prevent infection or control ongoing infection Oral antibiotics help prevent infection or control ongoing infection

22 Pneumonia Treatments for CF Physical Therapy Physical Therapy Percussive therapy devices assist to dislodge secretions. Percussive therapy devices assist to dislodge secretions. Aerboic exercise- increases sputum clearance and improves cardiovascular and overall health Aerboic exercise- increases sputum clearance and improves cardiovascular and overall health Aerosolized medications Aerosolized medications Dornase alfa breaks down DNA in sputum Dornase alfa breaks down DNA in sputum Inhaled Albuterol increases airway size Inhaled Albuterol increases airway size Bilevel positive airway pressure ventilators prevent low blood oxygen levels during sleep Bilevel positive airway pressure ventilators prevent low blood oxygen levels during sleep

23 Neisseria Aerobic and gram- negative cocci Aerobic and gram- negative cocci Inhabit the mucous membranes of mammals Inhabit the mucous membranes of mammals Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria gonorrhoeae N. Meningitidis N. Meningitidis ama/

24 Clinical Importance Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species Pathogenic: Pathogenic: N. gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhoea N. gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhoea N. meningitidis causes meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia N. meningitidis causes meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia Nonpathogenic: Nonpathogenic: N. cinerea, N. mucosa, N. sicca, N. subflava N. cinerea, N. mucosa, N. sicca, N. subflava

25 Mechanism of Infection The only host for this bacteria is the human The only host for this bacteria is the human Infection via colonization of mucus membranes Infection via colonization of mucus membranes Attaches to host cell using fimbriae Attaches to host cell using fimbriae Immune system activation  Release of protease  Loss of Ab activity Immune system activation  Release of protease  Loss of Ab activity

26 Clinical Importance: N. gonorrhoeae A. Neisser in 1879 A. Neisser in 1879 High prevalence and low mortality High prevalence and low mortality Usually limited to superficial mucosal surfaces lined with columnar epithelium Usually limited to superficial mucosal surfaces lined with columnar epithelium The areas most frequently involved are the urethra, cervix, rectum, pharynx, and conjunctiva The areas most frequently involved are the urethra, cervix, rectum, pharynx, and conjunctiva Involves mucous membranes of the urethra Involves mucous membranes of the urethra Results in an abundant discharge of pus Results in an abundant discharge of pus Apparent more in males than in the females Apparent more in males than in the females

27

28 Route of Transmission Gonorrhea is spread through Gonorrhea is spread through Sexual contact Sexual contact contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus. contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus. Mother to child Mother to child child passes through the birth canal during delivery, causingeye infections child passes through the birth canal during delivery, causing eye infections Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired.

29 Mechanism of Infection N. gonorrhoeae N. gonorrhoeae Main site of infection: urethra in male, cervix in female Main site of infection: urethra in male, cervix in female LPS damages epithelial cells with cilia that are found in the fallopian tubes LPS damages epithelial cells with cilia that are found in the fallopian tubes

30 Pathogenesis of Gonorrhea gsbs.utmb.edu

31 Gonorrhoea Treatment Single large dose of antibiotics given orally or through injection Single large dose of antibiotics given orally or through injection Ampicillin, ciprofloxacin or penicillin (developed resistance) Ampicillin, ciprofloxacin or penicillin (developed resistance) Renal transport mechanism that secretes penicillin into urine can be blocked for effectiveness in treatment. Renal transport mechanism that secretes penicillin into urine can be blocked for effectiveness in treatment. Probenecid Probenecid Untreated can block fallopian tubes resulting in reduced fertility. Untreated can block fallopian tubes resulting in reduced fertility.

32 Clinical Importance: N. meningitidis Anton Weichselbaum in 1887 Anton Weichselbaum in 1887 Causes meningococcal meningitis Causes meningococcal meningitis Low prevalence and high mortality Low prevalence and high mortality Inflammation the meninges of the brain or spinal cord Inflammation the meninges of the brain or spinal cord Flu like symptoms which progresses to apnea, seizures, disturbances in motor tone, and coma may develop. Flu like symptoms which progresses to apnea, seizures, disturbances in motor tone, and coma may develop.

33 Route of Transmission Direct contact with respiratory secretions Direct contact with respiratory secretions saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus of an infected person saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus of an infected person Shaking hands with an infected person or touching something they have handled, and then rubbing your own nose or mouth. Shaking hands with an infected person or touching something they have handled, and then rubbing your own nose or mouth. Found in the stool of persons who are infected Found in the stool of persons who are infected small children who are not yet toilet trained small children who are not yet toilet trained adults changing the diapers of an infected infant adults changing the diapers of an infected infant

34 Mechanism of Infection N. meningitidis N. meningitidis bloodstream spread; 1° entry can be respiratory tract, skin, or intestine bloodstream spread; 1° entry can be respiratory tract, skin, or intestine Hyperemia Hyperemia Formation of fibrin Formation of fibrin Inflammatory cells Inflammatory cells

35 Pathogenesis of Meningitis (1) Mucosal colonization, (2) Bloodstream invasion, (3) Multiplication, (4) Bacteremia; crossing of the blood–brain barrier, (5) Invasion of CNS and meninges, (6) Increased permeability of blood-brain barrier, (7) Pleocytosis, (8) Edema and increased intracranial pressure, (9)Release of proinflammatory compounds from infiltrated white blood cells and other host cells, Ultimately, (10) Neuronal injury (1) Mucosal colonization, (2) Bloodstream invasion, (3) Multiplication, (4) Bacteremia; crossing of the blood–brain barrier, (5) Invasion of CNS and meninges, (6) Increased permeability of blood-brain barrier, (7) Pleocytosis, (8) Edema and increased intracranial pressure, (9)Release of proinflammatory compounds from infiltrated white blood cells and other host cells, Ultimately, (10) Neuronal injury

36 Meningococcal meningitis Treatment Antibiotic treatment ASAP after performing lumbar puncture. Antibiotic treatment ASAP after performing lumbar puncture. Pencillin is first choice, if resistant use ceftriaxone. Pencillin is first choice, if resistant use ceftriaxone. Initial empiric antibiotics and addition of ampicillin for those with Listeria pathogen. Initial empiric antibiotics and addition of ampicillin for those with Listeria pathogen. Chemoprophylaxis can interrupt transmission to those who are at highest risk of carrying the pathogenic strains. Chemoprophylaxis can interrupt transmission to those who are at highest risk of carrying the pathogenic strains. Eradicate using rifampin, quinolones, ceftriaxone. Eradicate using rifampin, quinolones, ceftriaxone. Recommended vaccine for 4/5 strains A,C, Y and W135 for young children. Recommended vaccine for 4/5 strains A,C, Y and W135 for young children. Still developing vaccine for B strain Still developing vaccine for B strain Surgical intervention for complications Surgical intervention for complications

37 Bordetella Non-motile Non-motile Bordetella pertussis Bordetella pertussis cause of pertussis, also known as whooping cough cause of pertussis, also known as whooping cough II/microbes/cells_pics.htm

38 Clinical Importance: Bordetella pertussis Affects the respiratory passages Affects the respiratory passages Vaccine-preventable Vaccine-preventable Infects humans Infects humans Highly contagious Highly contagious Three stages Three stages Catarrhal Catarrhal Paroxymal Paroxymal Convalscent Convalscent

39 Route of Transmission Whooping Cough person to person through tiny drops of fluid from an infected person's nose or mouth person to person through tiny drops of fluid from an infected person's nose or mouth via respiratory aerosol droplets via respiratory aerosol droplets fomites fomites

40 Mechanism of Infection Mechanism of Infection Colonizes and grows on only the ciliated mucus membranes of the respiratory tract Colonizes and grows on only the ciliated mucus membranes of the respiratory tract Adhere to cilia of bronchial epithelium via pili; destroy cells Adhere to cilia of bronchial epithelium via pili; destroy cells Produces numerous endotoxins: Produces numerous endotoxins: Pertussigen – interferes with cell surface receptors Pertussigen – interferes with cell surface receptors Adenylate cyclase – inhibits immune effector cell function Adenylate cyclase – inhibits immune effector cell function Tracheal cytotoxin – immobilizes cilia Tracheal cytotoxin – immobilizes cilia Hemagglutin – attachment to host epithelial cells Hemagglutin – attachment to host epithelial cells

41 Pathogenesis gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/images/fig31_4.JPG

42 Whooping Cough Treatment Erythromycin administered early to prevent coughing stage. Erythromycin administered early to prevent coughing stage. Hospitalization may be required for infants Hospitalization may be required for infants Suction to remove secretions from upper nose and upper respiratory tract. Suction to remove secretions from upper nose and upper respiratory tract. Lots of fluids to prevent dehydration and maintain nutrition. Lots of fluids to prevent dehydration and maintain nutrition. Universal immunization that includes diptheria, tetanus, and aceullar pertussis. Universal immunization that includes diptheria, tetanus, and aceullar pertussis. 5 doses by 7 th birthday. 5 doses by 7 th birthday.

43 References Chandrasoma, Parakrama and Clive R. Taylor (1991). Concise pathology. Englewod Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Chamberlain, Neal, R. “Lymphoreticular and Hematopoetic Infections” 2003 Department of Health and Human Sciences. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)” 2008 Department of Health and Human Sciences. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Gonorrhea” 2008 Department of Health and Human Sciences. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Melioidosis” 2008 Department of Health and Human Sciences. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Meningitis (Meningococcal Disease)” 2008 Finger, Horst, Carl Heinz Wirsing von Koenig. Bordetella.. Gilbert, R.O. B.V.Sc. College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University. “Foreign Animal Diseases, Glanders” Hagebock, Joyce. “Serologic responses to the mallein test for glanders in solipeds.” Hagebock, Joyce. “Serologic responses to the mallein test for glanders in solipeds.”

44 References (Cont’d) Health Central Network. “Whooping Cough.” Health Central Network. “Whooping Cough.” Image. “Betaproteobacteria.” Kwang, Sik Kim (2003). Pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis: from bactaeremia to neuronal injury. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. (4) . Medscape. “Meningococcal Meningitis: Treatment and Medication.” Medscape. “Meningococcal Meningitis: Treatment and Medication.” National Health Service. “Treating Gonorrhoea.” National Health Service. “Treating Gonorrhoea.” Sexually Transmitted Disease Resource. “Gonorrhea” 2008 Summer, Elizabeth J., Jason J. Gill, Chris Upton, Carlos F. Gonzalez, and Ry Young (2007). Role of phages in the pathogenesis of Burkholderia or “Where are the toxin genes in Burkholderia phages?” Curr Opin Microbiol. 10(4) Rollins, D M. “Pathogenic Microbiology.” The Institute of Genomic Research. Pathema, Bioinformatics Research Center. “Burkholderia pseudomallei” Tortora, Gerard, Berdell, Funke, and Christine Case. Microbiology: An Introduction. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2005


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