2 Research questions/hypotheses Viewed within the context of logical structure and objectives
3 Research Questions (descriptive objectives) Hypotheses (comparison objectives) Apply to a sample not population (or census).
4 Research Questions Detail the problem statement Further describe and refine the issue under study Add focus to the problem statement Guide data collection and analysis Sets context
5 Problem Statement Sample Information literacy is a prevalent topic in the literature of library and information science (LIS), and most writings on the topic focus on methods for engaging faculty to work together with librarians to integrate information literacy into the overall curriculum. Attention from the regional accreditation organizations to information literacy, especially as it is defined by ACRL, implies both a responsibility for librarians to participate actively in student learning outcomes through a program of study in information literacy, and serves as an opportunity for librarians to become true partners in student learning. Nevertheless, no study has examined the extent to which discussion of the accreditation organizations, their guidelines, and related documents appear in the scholarly communications of LIS. The purpose of this study is to fill that void by determining the extent to which particular accreditation documents are explicitly addressed, and by identifying any patterns as to the particular documents, or themes within those documents, which comprise the focus of these writings. In particular, this study analyzes the conversation librarians are having about information literacy, and the extent to which these discussions reach outside of the library profession and reference the six regional accreditation organizations’ statements on information literacy.
6 Related Research Questions This study specifically covers two questions: Which regional accreditation organizations are cited in United States LIS writings on information literacy, and how extensively are they mentioned? Are only the accreditation organizations mentioned, or are specific documents and publications identified? Are the aspects and themes from Developing Research and Communication Skills and or Figure 1 prevalent in the LIS writings? Do they relate to: Responsibilities and Collaboration: dispersal of lead responsibilities and partnerships between librarians and teaching faculty in some aspect of information literacy instruction, from designing assignments, having librarians guest lecture, or team teaching. Assessment of student learning outcomes: defined in terms of demonstrated gains in student learning throughout a program of study.[i][i] Critical thinking: bringing students beyond the mere access of information to being able to evaluate information and apply it to a specific purpose information effectively, ethically, and legally.
7 Hypotheses Set up an experiment or situation to test Suggest relationships (or lack thereof) between and among variables Predict causes and relationships prior to testing.
8 Variables A variable is “any property of a person, thing, event, setting, and so on that is not fixed.” In a casual relationship The variable first identified in an hypothesis is usually the independent variable. This is the variable that determines, influences, or produces the change in the other main variable The other variable is usually the dependent variable or the subject variable. This variable is dependent on or influenced by th4e independent variable(s)
9 Hypotheses (Some Types) Null Alternative Directional Other
10 Null Hypothesis The absence of a relationship or difference in the results; any relationship or difference is due to chance or sampling error Example: There is no statistically significance difference between _____ and ____ regarding ______.
11 Alternative/Directional Expresses a relationship between the variables under study Alternative: points a direction and requires “assumption” that is specified and objective Expresses a relationship between the variables under study Directional: points a direction and requires evidence via literature
12 Hypotheses Support Not supported Not: prove, accept, rejection (a finality to such verbs)
13 Qualifications Significance testing takes a rich set of information you get from a dataset and reduces it to a series of binary, accept/reject statements. Thus, some prefer to use qualitative data collection A key question is: “Can the findings be explained any other way?” Is there a good possible alternative explanation?
14 Some Criteria Briefly, clearly, and explicitly stated States the relationship between variables “Testable” and has explanatory power Value neutral Basis for selecting a hypothesis and being able to support it (supported by and consistent with theory and previous research)
15 Problem Statement Sample Research shows that, although libraries generally acknowledge the necessity and benefit of marketing their services, most engage in promotional activities without the guidance of a formal marketing plan. Librarians and library administrators often identify lack of funding, lack of staff, and lack of time as the main barriers to developing and implementing a full marketing plan. However, no study has examined those libraries which do have marketing plans and those which do not to compare their relative levels of budget and staff in order to discover what, if any, connection exists between these factors and marketing planning.
16 Related Hypothesis Null No relationship exists between levels of funding and staffing and the existence of a formal marketing plan. Alternative Formal marketing plans exist in institutions with greater levels of funding and staffing. Directional Lower funding and staffing results in lower levels of marketing planning.
17 Satisfaction Emotional response (sense of contentment that arises from an actual experience in relation to an expected experience) Frames willingness to revisit and customer loyalty Complementary to service quality Applies to all or certain library service area Focuses overall or on specific transactions
18 Hernon & Altman, Assessing Service Quality Extensive list of questions Reprint Guidelines for Customer Satisfaction Surveys Provide sample data collection instrument
19 Listening to Customer’s Voice Passive Approach Casual comments Comment cards Compliant analysis Proactive Approach Satisfaction surveys* Focus group interviews *Diagnostic tools (like taking the temperature―a general reading)
20 Customer satisfaction surveys are a form of “feedback” from those who have received services
21 Examples: Satisfaction of users What: Are customers satisfied with our current circulation loan periods? Who: Random sample of current cardholders who have borrowed within the last year. Where: Our public library When: Data collected over four months How: Survey
22 Example: User Satisfaction Research Questions Hypotheses