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Patricia C. Hasen, CDR, NC, USN Rocio Porras, LT, NC, USN Family Medicine Department Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton Integrating Behavioral Health Care into.

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Presentation on theme: "Patricia C. Hasen, CDR, NC, USN Rocio Porras, LT, NC, USN Family Medicine Department Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton Integrating Behavioral Health Care into."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patricia C. Hasen, CDR, NC, USN Rocio Porras, LT, NC, USN Family Medicine Department Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton Integrating Behavioral Health Care into the Navy Medical Home Port (Patient Centered Medical Home) 1 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

2 Disclosure / Disclaimer LT Rocio Porras and CDR Patricia Hasen have nothing to disclose. The views and opinions expressed during this presentation do not necessarily reflect those of Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton, the Department of the Navy or the Department of Defense. 2 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

3 Objectives 1.Define Behavioral Health and Health. 2.Verbalize the rationale for integrating Behavioral Health (BH) in the Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) 3.Discuss how integration of BH is in alignment and consistent with principles of the PCMH, the Quadruple Aim and the MHS. 4. Discuss the benefits of integrating BH in the PCMH. 5.Compare and contrast the three models of BH integration in the PCMH Describe how to build BH in your clinic. 6.Verbalize required elements for successful integration of behavioral health in an outpatient clinic setting. 7.Verbalize principles for leading and managing change 3 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

4 Define Behavioral Health and Health BEHAVIORAL HEALTH “is integral to overall health as mind and body are inseparable. As a general concept, behavioral health is the reciprocal relationship between human behavior and the well-being of the body, mind, and spirit, whether considered individually or as an integrated whole.” (PC- PCC, 2012) HEALTH “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”(WHO, 1946) 4 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

5 5 ‘That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,’ said the Cat. ‘I don’t much care where ­’ said Alice. ‘Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,’ said the Cat. ‘ ­so long as I get somewhere,’ Alice added as an explanation. ‘Oh, you’re sure to do that,’ said the Cat, ’if you only walk long enough.’ (Carroll, 1865) “…she was a little startled by seeing the Cheshire Cat sitting on a bough of a tree a few yards off...” ‘Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?’ AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Cheshire Cat pictures (screencaps) from Disney's Alice I in Wonderland. Image Source Page: wonderland.net/pictures/cheshire-cat-pictures.htmlhttp://www.alice-in- wonderland.net/pictures/cheshire-cat-pictures.html

6 Strain of Past Decade of War 6 U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Reece Lodder. Taken 19 April U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Alfred V. Lopez. Taken 22 April AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

7 A Military Readiness Concern 7 U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Vanessa American Horse. Taken 2 April U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Mark Fayloga. Taken 19 Feb AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

8 Whom We Serve Beneficiaries by Category –Active duty: 1.7 million –Active duty family: 2.4 million –Retirees: 1 million –Retiree family: 1.8 million –Medicare-eligible: 2.1 million Program Enrollment 5.4 million TRICARE Prime o 3.7 mil in direct care system o 1.7 mil in contractor networks 2.1 mil TRICARE Standard/Extra Others use TRICARE Reserve Select, TRICARE For Life 8 Over 9.6 Million Beneficiaries Source: TMA, AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

9 Rationale for Integrating Population Health 30.5% US adult population meets criteria for one or more mental health problems (estimated for a 1-year period) and only 32% of these receive treatment (Kessler, et. al., 2005) % of US pediatric population meet behavioral health problem criteria (Simonian, 2006; Sakolsky & Birmaher, 2008) 11-17% of OEF/OIF combat veterans met BH screening criteria (Hoge, et. al., 2004) 80% of BH problems in US youths are not identified or treated (Teen Screen, 2011) MH problems are 2-3 times more common in patients with chronic health problems (Katon, 2007; Dowrick, et al., 2005) Half of all life-time BH disorders start by age 14 (TeenScreen, 2011) 9 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

10 Rationale for Integrating Readiness 52% of all BH treatment occurs in Primary Care (Kessler, et al., 2005) 48% of all psychotropic drug visits occur in PC (Pincus, et al., 1998) 80% with BH disorder visit Primary Care at least once a year (Narrow, et al., 1993) 11-17% of OIF/OEF combat veterans met BH screening criteria; only 38-45% indicated an interest in receiving help; only 23-40% reported received professional help in the past (Hoge, et al., 2004) 32% (average) of Military Health System beneficiaries report difficulties accessing BH care (HCSDB, 2008; TMA, 2009) 64% (average) of MHS beneficiaries report difficulties accessing urgent BH care (HCSDB, 2008; TMA, 2009) 10 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

11 Rationale for Integrating Per Capita Costs Mental health conditions 3rd costliest medical condition (AHRQ, 2009) 33.2% of adults being treated for BH concerns receive minimally adqequate care (Wang, et al., 2005) 30-50% of referrals from PC to outpatient BH clinic don’t make 1st appt (Fisher & Ransom, 1997; Hoge, et al., 2006) 84% of the time, the 14 most common physical complaints have no identifiable organic etiology (Kroenke & Mangelsdorf, 1989) 40% of premature deaths in the US are from behavioral factors (Kindig & McGinnis, 2007) Lower costs – medical use decreased 15.7% for those receiving BH treatment and increased 12.3% for controls who did not receive BH treatment (Chiles, Lambert & Hatch, 1999) 11 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

12 12 Source: MHS 2012 Stakeholder’s Report eport.aspx Rationale for Integrating AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

13 Determinants of Health 13 The actual causes of illness and death in the United States often relate to personal behaviors that the health care system fails to address. To achieve our transformation from healthcare to health, we will have to learn better ways to help people adopt a healthier lifestyle. In the near term, we will focus on ways to reduce obesity and reduce tobacco use. AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: MHS 2012 Stakeholder’s Report eport.aspx

14 Rationale for Integrating Experience of Care Better access to BH services Stigma-free BH access Better health outcomes Improved satisfaction Ongoing education to Medical Home teams and residents 14 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

15 Rationale for Integrating Current military environment –Stigma –Family Readiness affects Military Readiness –Strain of past decade of war –Lack of BH capacity in MTF for Family members –Lack of community capacity for Family members –Lack of providers who accept TRICARE –Cultural gap between military and civilian providers 15 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

16 Summary of Rationale for Integrating BH problems are common Complex inter-relationship between physical and psycho-social symptoms PC is largest platform for health care delivery in the US PC is the defacto BH treatment platform BH problems often go unrecognized in PC When recognized, treatment is often suboptimal BH problems compromise the quality and outcomes of treatment for physical health conditions The leading preventable cause of premature death is behavior Appropriate BH treatment can alleviate impediments to well-being BH treatment can assist in building resiliency and maintaining military readiness 16 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

17 Benefits of Integration When BH is integrated in the PCMH: Less stigma - patients prefer to be seen at PCMH rather than specialty clinic Better coordination - shorter wait times and better communication Reduce morbidity with early recognition and treatment Serve all patients - opportunity for prevention Integration of physical and emotional care Integrate screening and brief psychosocial update into visit - improved screening, recognition, identification, early intervention, treatment, monitoring Conduct an assessment alone or collaboratively Overcome barriers to seeking mental health care Skills to build resilience, promote healthy lifestyles Improves Military Readiness 17 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

18 Illustration in PC Morning Clinic 56 yo diabetic with poor control 19 yo smoker for P.E. 33 yo with multiple somatic complaints 7 yo for earache 67 yo w/insomnia 70 yo w/sinusitis 52 yo hypertensive patient for f/u 45 yo w/tinnitus 38 yo w/acute asthma 29 yo w/chest pain & SOB 18 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: Blount, IntegratedPrimaryCareStories.pdf

19 Example with Highlighted Mental Health Needs 56 yo diabetic with poor control 19 yo smoker for P.E. 33 yo w/ multiple somatic complaints 7 yo for earache 67 yo w/insomnia 70 yo w/sinusitis 52 yo hypertensive patient for f/u 45 yo w/tinnitus 38 yo w/acute asthma 29 yo w/chest pain & SOB Old Dx BPD Depression Alcohol abuse Panic disorder 19 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: Blount, IntegratedPrimaryCareStories.pdf

20 Example with Highlighted Psychosocial Distress 56 yo diabetic with poor control 19 yo smoker for P.E. 33 yo with multiple somatic complaints 7 yo for earache 67 yo w/insomnia 70 yo w/sinusitis 52 yo hypertensive patient for f/u 45 yo w/tinnitus 38 yo w/acute asthma 29 yo w/chest pain & SOB Anxious (Old Dx BPD ) (Depression) Bedwetting (Alcohol abuse) Family violence Hypochondriasis (Panic disorder) 20 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: Blount, IntegratedPrimaryCareStories.pdf

21 Example with Highlighted Behavioral Health Needs 56 yo diabetic with poor control 19 yo smoker for P.E. 33 yo with multiple somatic complaints 7 yo for earache 67 yo w/insomnia 70 yo w/sinusitis 52 yo hypertensive patient for f/u 45 yo w/tinnitus 38 yo w/acute asthma 29 yo w/chest pain & SOB Smoking/weight loss (Anxious; Old Dx BPD ) Smoking cessation (Depression) (Bedwetting ) (Alcohol abuse) (Family violence ) Cardiac risk factors (Hypochondriasis) Medication compliance (Panic disorder) 21 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: Blount, IntegratedPrimaryCareStories.pdf

22 Integration is Consistent with Joint Principles of the PCMH –Personal Physician –Physician-directed Medical Practice –Whole Person Orientation –Care is Coordinated and/or Integrated –Quality and Safety –Enhanced Access –Payment Reform 22 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

23 Integration is Consistent with the Quadruple Aim Readiness – Pre- and Post-deployment – Family Health – Behavioral Health – Professional Competency/Currency – Delivering the Right Care at the Right Time Population Health – Healthy service members, families, and retirees – Quality health care outcomes – Prevalence of BH conditions in PC A Positive Patient & Staff Experience – Patient and Family centered Care, Access, Satisfaction Cost – Responsibly Managed – Focused on value – Cost of unmet needs; decreased costs when address BH needs 23 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

24 Integration is Consistent with the MHS Mission Provide optimal health services in support of our nation’s military mission— anytime, anywhere. DoD Mission To provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of our country. 24 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: MHS. OfficeOfStrategyManagement.aspx

25 3 Models of Integration 1.Care Management Model 2.Primary Care Behavioral Health Model 3.Blended Model 25 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

26 Care Management Model Population-based model of care typically focused on a discrete clinical problem (e.g., depression). It incorporates specific pathways to systematically address how BH problems are managed in PC. PC providers & care managers share information via direct communication, shared medical record, treatment plan, and standard of care. Typically, there is some form of systematic interface with the outpatient mental health 26 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

27 Primary Care Behavioral Health Model Population-based model of focused on all enrolled patients (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance use, stress, obesity, diabetes, insomnia, chronic pain) BHC is embedded with PC team serving as a team member in the assessment, intervention & health care of the patient BHCs & PCMs share patient information, medical record & coordinate health care plans Brings a team-based management approach to care BHC helps PC team improve BH assessment & intervention BHC sees patients in minute appointments in PC clinic Same day as well as scheduled appointment availability BHC focuses on full range of BH & health behavior change 27 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

28 Blended Model Focused on all enrolled patients Care Manager and Embedded BHP o Continuity of Care o Stepped Care o Access to all enrollees to BHC in the PCMH o Clinical Feasibility and Efficiency o Implements DoD/VA guidelines 28 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

29 Re-Engineering Healthcare Integration Programs (REHIP) 29 From: REHIP https://www.pdhealth.mil/education/2011_Presentations/AFPCH%2011%20Re-Engineering%20Healthcare.pdf AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

30 Blended Model 30 From: REHIP https://www.pdhealth.mil/education/2011_Presentations/AFPCH%2011%20Re-Engineering%20Healthcare.pdf AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

31 Building BH into Your Clinic Educate yourself – read your instructions, support documents Educate your staff Staffing ratios Facilities – patients seen in the exam room; common check-in areas; BH providers imbedded into the PCMH; can share office spaces with other providers Administrative support –Templates, business operations, position descriptions, 4 th level MEPRS, coding, POM, documentation –Ancillary support staff support –Handling referrals –Referrals to MH 31 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

32 Building BH into Your Clinic Training primary care providers and staff in prevention, recognition, management, and referral of adult and pediatric patients with social and emotional concerns is essential to fully integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care Required skills of the Behavioral Health providers Training program –Phased training program through BUMED by qualified trainers –Didactic and practicum –Phase I – self guided, didactic –Phase II – Didactic, In Vivo, Feedback (San Antonio, July 2012) –Phase III – (6 mo following Phase II), Sustainment training, site visits Monthly teleconferences with other BH personnel 32 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

33 Principles for Leading & Managing Change Leading and managing change –Involve the stakeholders – that is the entire staff – in who, what, where, when of integration, accessing BH, utilizing BH –Communicate, communicate, communicate – early and often –Delineate roles –Set up business plan – templates, coding, referral management, appointing, develop patient registry –Care Coordination –Celebrate victories Lessons learned Outcomes/Metrics/Dissemination 33 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

34 8-Step Process for Leading Change 1.Create urgency 2.Form a powerful coalition 3.Create a vision for change 4.Communicate the vision 5.Remove obstacles 6.Create short-term wins 7.Build on the change 8.Anchor the changes in corporate culture 34 AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort Source: Kotter, J. (1996). Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

35 References AHRQ. (2009). Heart Conditions, Cancer, Trauma-related Disorders, Mental disorders, and Asthma Were the Five Most Costly Conditions in 1996 and AHRQ News and Numbers, August 5, Blount, A. (unk). What Does a Behavioral Health Clinician Add in a Primary Care Practice?: A Set of Stories. Available at IntegratedPrimaryCareStories.pdf Carroll, L. (1865) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. London: Macmillan and Company. Available at Chiles, J., Lambert, M., & Hatch, A. (1999). The impact of psychological interventions on medical cost offset: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Vol., 6, pp Croghan, T. W. and Brown, J. D. (2010) Integrating Mental Health Treatment Into the Patient Centered Medical Home. (Prepared by Mathematica Policy Research under Contract No. HHSA I TO2.) AHRQ Publication No EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available at al%20Health%20and%20Substance%20Use%20Treatment%20in%20the%20PCMH.pdf Dowrick, C., Katona, C., Peveler, R., and Lloyed, H. (2005) Somatic Symptoms and Depression: Diagnostic Confusion and Clinical Neglect. British Journal of General Practice, pp Available at Fisher, L., & Ransom, D. (1997). Developing a strategy for managing behavioral health care within the context of primary care. Archives of Family Medicine, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

36 References HCSDB. (2008). MHS Beneficiaries’ Access to Behavioral Health Care Issue Brief, Health Care Survey of DoD Beneficiaries (HCSDB), July Available at Hoge, C., Auchterlonie, J., and Miliken, C. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 295, Issue 9, pp Available at Hoge, C., Castro, C., Messer, S., McGurk, D., Cotting, D. and Koffman, R. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 351, pp Available at Katon, W., Lin, E., and Kroenke, K. (2007) The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Medical Symptom Burden in Patients with Chronic Medical Illness. General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 29, Issue 2, pp Kessler, R., Demler, O., Frank, R., Olfson, M., Pincus, H., Walter, E., Wang, P., Wells, K., Zaslavsky, A. (2005) Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders, 1990 to New England Journal of Medicine. Vol 352, No 24, pp Available at Kotter, J. (1996). Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kroenke, K. & Mangelsdorff, D. (1989). Common symptoms in ambulatory care: Incidence, evaluation, therapy and outcome. American Journal of Medicine. Vol. 86, pp 262– AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

37 References Kindig, D. & McGinnis, J. (2007). Determinants of U.S. population health: Translating research into future policies. Altarum Policy Roundtable Report. 28 Nov 2007; Washington, D.C. Available at RTR.pdf Narrow, W. E., Regier, D. A., Rae, D. S., Manderscheid, R. W., Locke, B. Z. (1993) Use of Services by Persons with Mental and Addictive Disorders: Findings from the National Institutes of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 50, pp PC-PCC. (2012) Behavioral Health Defined. Available at Pincus, H. A., Tanielian, M. A., Marcus, S. C., Olfson, M., Zarin, D. A., Thompson, J., & Zito, J. M. (1998) Prescribing Trends in Psychotropic Medications: Primary Care, Psychiatry, and Other Medical Specialties. The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol 279, Issue 7, pp Available at TMA. (2009). Health Care Survey of DoD Beneficiaries 2009 Annual Report. Sept 2009.Available at TMA. (2011) The Evaluation of the TRICARE Program: Fiscal Year 2011 Report to Congress. Available at Sarkolsky, D., & Birmaher, B. (2008) Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: Management in Primary Care. Current Opinion In Pediatrics, Vol 20, pp AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

38 References Simonian, S. J. (2006). Screening and Identification in Pediatric Primary Care. Behavior Modification. Vol 30, pp TeenScreen. (2011) TeenScreen Primary Care Fact Sheet: Research Supporting the Integration of Mental Health Checkups Into Adolescent Health Care. National Center for Mental Health Checkups at Columbia University. Available at Wang, P., Berglund, P., Olfson, M., Pincus, H., Wells, K. and Kessler, R. (2005). Failure and Delay in Initial Treatment Contact after First Onset of Mental Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 62, pp Available at Wang, P., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H., Wells, K. and Kessler, R. ( 2005) Twelve-Month Use of Mental Health Services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol 62, pp Available at assn.org/cgi/reprint/62/6/629.pdf WHO. (1946) Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, June, AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort

39 Questions & Comments 39 CDR Patricia C. Hasen, NC, USN LT Rocio Porras, NC, USN AAACN Tri-Service Military Pre-Conference 1 May 2012, Walt Disney World Resort


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