Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Literature Lecture 1 Literary Research. Tools of the Trade. Manuscripts, Texts, Editions, Sources, Resources."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Literature Lecture 1 Literary Research. Tools of the Trade. Manuscripts, Texts, Editions, Sources, Resources
Main Goals of Education in Humanities / Literary Studies Philology = ‘science of literature’ Etymology: Greek philo ‘love’ + logos ‘word’
The Scholar Keeper or treasurer of cultural / literary traditions Professional reader and writer of texts Critical thinker Works to preserve, transmit and interpret literary products Professional Text Expert
The Scholar In order to carry out the task the student (the future critic, scholar) has to become a professional reader Professional reading does not exclude reading for pleasure, but employs different and subtler reading strategies To develop critical thinking To learn to argue for findings based on scholarly research
1. Tools of Research To learn how to professionally use works (texts, manuscripts, books) To learn how to use the tools of the trade –Libraries Research Public –Sources Manuscripts / Typescripts Books –Editions –Aids (handbooks, dictionaries, lexicons) Internet sources
Oxford Companion to English Literature Different editions – same editor
Oxford Companion to English Literature Different editions – different editors
J. A: Cuddon (revised by C. E. Preston: Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory 4th Edition. London: Penguin Books, 1999
2. Tools of Analysis To learn how to use intellectual tools, i.e., other disciplines Literary theory (Approaches to interpretation) Stylistics Rhetoric Poetics Philosophy
The Professional Reader 1 What to find in a book i.e., how to take a book in your hands, what to look for, how to judge if it is a reliable or an unreliable source 2 What to find in a literary work, how to read it, how to interpret it
Terms From Text to Interpretation –work –text –manuscript –fragment –apocrypha –book –anthology –collection –oeuvre
Terms From Text to Interpretation (Cont.) –copyright –plagiarism –handbook and manual –lexicon –dictionary –analysis / interpretation
Terms to define: editions (both for electronic and printed formats) –edition –first edition –enlarged edition –revised edition –popular edition –annotated edition –critical edition –variorum edition –limited edition
The Text The actual words of a book in their original form or any form they have been transmitted The main body of matter in a book (apart from notes etc.) A short passage taken from the Bible as the theme
Manuscript / Typescript Manuscript –A book or a document of any kind written by hand rather than printed or typed Typescript –A typewritten document
Editions Books often appear in more than one edition. To give a simple example, a book may be published in a hardback and a paperback edition. These have different ISBN numbers even if the pagination (page numbering) is identical in both.
Editions (Cont.) If a book is published again, there are sometimes changes to the text (beyond correcting misprints). Every republishing of this kind is another edition. So, a book may have a 1st, 2nd, 3rd edition, etc.
Editions (how to refer to) If a work has been revised and extended it may contain whole chapters that are not included in earlier editions. In academic writing, your bibliography must always state clearly which edition you used. It is also often useful in the bibliography to state when the work was first published.
Editions - details First edition the total number of copies of a book printed from one set of type one edition may have several impressions or printings Second edition if the original type is changed and the book is reprinted Second edition with corrections Revised edition
Editions - details (Cont.) Collected / Complete edition Abridged edition Enlarged / Extended edition Limited edition mostly for collectors Reprint edition / facsimile edition a re-publishing, keeping the original format, of material that has already been published
The first paperback edition of an individual collection of 1964 by Philip Larkin and a later imprint
The first hardback edition of an individual collection of 1974
The same collection with different cover designs, various imprints
Footnotes Footnotes are listed numerically and consecutively, both in the text of the research paper and in the footnote citation. Footnote numbers are superscripted. In the text, the superscripted number must be added immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. The footnote citations are added at the foot or bottom of the same page where the sources are cited.
Footnotes - enlarged for your convenience Footnotes are listed numerically and consecutively, both in the text of the research paper and in the footnote citation. Footnote numbers are superscripted.
Footnotes - enlarged for your convenience (Cont.) In the text, the superscripted number must be added immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. The footnote citations are added at the foot or bottom of the same page where the sources are cited.
Footnote Badford, Curtis: „Yeats’s Byzantium Poems: A Study of Their Development”. PMLA, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Mar., 1960), pp. 110-125
Endnotes Endnotes are listed numerically and consecutively, both in the text of the research paper and in the endnote citation. Endnote numbers are superscripted numbers
Endnotes (Cont.) In the text, superscripted numbers are added immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or Notes page at the end of the essay just before the Works Cited (MLA) or Bibliography(Chicago Style Manual) page.
Endnote Attridge, Derek: ”Rhythm in English Poetry”. New Literary History, Vol. 21, No. 4, Papers from the Commonwealth Center for Literary and Cultural Change (Autumn, 1990), pp. 1015-1037
Editions with annotation Critical edition includes variant readings and scholarly emendations after careful study of manuscripts or printings to determine the original or most authoritative form of a text Variorum edition contains the complete works of an author accompanied by the notes of previous commentators and editors, and indications of the textual changes made during successive printings
The variorum edition and a popular edition of Donne’s poems