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Introduction to Literature Lecture 1 Literary Research. Tools of the Trade. Manuscripts, Texts, Editions, Sources, Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Literature Lecture 1 Literary Research. Tools of the Trade. Manuscripts, Texts, Editions, Sources, Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Literature Lecture 1 Literary Research. Tools of the Trade. Manuscripts, Texts, Editions, Sources, Resources

2 Main Goals of Education in Humanities / Literary Studies Philology = ‘science of literature’ Etymology: Greek philo ‘love’ + logos ‘word’

3 The Scholar Keeper or treasurer of cultural / literary traditions Professional reader and writer of texts Critical thinker Works to preserve, transmit and interpret literary products Professional Text Expert

4 The Scholar In order to carry out the task the student (the future critic, scholar) has to become a professional reader Professional reading does not exclude reading for pleasure, but employs different and subtler reading strategies To develop critical thinking To learn to argue for findings based on scholarly research

5 1. Tools of Research To learn how to professionally use works (texts, manuscripts, books) To learn how to use the tools of the trade –Libraries Research Public –Sources Manuscripts / Typescripts Books –Editions –Aids (handbooks, dictionaries, lexicons) Internet sources

6 Oxford Companion to English Literature Different editions – same editor

7 Oxford Companion to English Literature Different editions – different editors

8 MLA Handbook Different editions

9 J. A: Cuddon (revised by C. E. Preston: Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory 4th Edition. London: Penguin Books, 1999

10 2. Tools of Analysis To learn how to use intellectual tools, i.e., other disciplines Literary theory (Approaches to interpretation) Stylistics Rhetoric Poetics Philosophy

11 The Professional Reader 1 What to find in a book i.e., how to take a book in your hands, what to look for, how to judge if it is a reliable or an unreliable source 2 What to find in a literary work, how to read it, how to interpret it

12 Terms From Text to Interpretation –work –text –manuscript –fragment –apocrypha –book –anthology –collection –oeuvre

13 Terms From Text to Interpretation (Cont.) –copyright –plagiarism –handbook and manual –lexicon –dictionary –analysis / interpretation

14 Terms to define: editions (both for electronic and printed formats) –edition –first edition –enlarged edition –revised edition –popular edition –annotated edition –critical edition –variorum edition –limited edition

15 The Text The actual words of a book in their original form or any form they have been transmitted The main body of matter in a book (apart from notes etc.) A short passage taken from the Bible as the theme

16 Manuscript / Typescript Manuscript –A book or a document of any kind written by hand rather than printed or typed Typescript –A typewritten document

17 Manuscripts by Thomas Hardy and W. B. Yeats

18 Typescript and manuscript by T. S. Eliot

19 Typescript page from Tom Stoppard’s Arcadia

20 Editions Books often appear in more than one edition. To give a simple example, a book may be published in a hardback and a paperback edition. These have different ISBN numbers even if the pagination (page numbering) is identical in both.

21 Editions (Cont.) If a book is published again, there are sometimes changes to the text (beyond correcting misprints). Every republishing of this kind is another edition. So, a book may have a 1st, 2nd, 3rd edition, etc.

22 Editions (how to refer to) If a work has been revised and extended it may contain whole chapters that are not included in earlier editions. In academic writing, your bibliography must always state clearly which edition you used. It is also often useful in the bibliography to state when the work was first published.

23 Editions - details First edition the total number of copies of a book printed from one set of type one edition may have several impressions or printings Second edition if the original type is changed and the book is reprinted Second edition with corrections Revised edition

24 Editions - details (Cont.) Collected / Complete edition Abridged edition Enlarged / Extended edition Limited edition mostly for collectors Reprint edition / facsimile edition a re-publishing, keeping the original format, of material that has already been published

25 The first paperback edition of an individual collection of 1964 by Philip Larkin and a later imprint

26 The first hardback edition of an individual collection of 1974

27 The same collection with different cover designs, various imprints

28 Selected Poems of 2002 and 2011

29 Collected Poems of 1988 and 1989 by British and American publishers

30 Collected Poems New edition 2003

31 Early Poems and Juvenilia 2005

32 Complete Poems 2012

33 Editions - details (Cont.) Popular editions vs Annotated editions with textual comments, explanatory notes on the text

34 Popular edition of complete works

35 Collected, annotated and variorum editions of W. B. Yeats’s poems

36 Terms to define: apparatus –apparatus –reference –bibliography –index –glossary –note –footnote –endnote –appendix

37 Footnotes Footnotes are listed numerically and consecutively, both in the text of the research paper and in the footnote citation. Footnote numbers are superscripted. In the text, the superscripted number must be added immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. The footnote citations are added at the foot or bottom of the same page where the sources are cited.

38 Footnotes - enlarged for your convenience Footnotes are listed numerically and consecutively, both in the text of the research paper and in the footnote citation. Footnote numbers are superscripted.

39 Footnotes - enlarged for your convenience (Cont.) In the text, the superscripted number must be added immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. The footnote citations are added at the foot or bottom of the same page where the sources are cited.

40 Footnote Badford, Curtis: „Yeats’s Byzantium Poems: A Study of Their Development”. PMLA, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Mar., 1960), pp

41 Endnotes Endnotes are listed numerically and consecutively, both in the text of the research paper and in the endnote citation. Endnote numbers are superscripted numbers

42 Endnotes (Cont.) In the text, superscripted numbers are added immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space. Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or Notes page at the end of the essay just before the Works Cited (MLA) or Bibliography(Chicago Style Manual) page.

43 Endnote Attridge, Derek: ”Rhythm in English Poetry”. New Literary History, Vol. 21, No. 4, Papers from the Commonwealth Center for Literary and Cultural Change (Autumn, 1990), pp

44 Editions with annotation Critical edition includes variant readings and scholarly emendations after careful study of manuscripts or printings to determine the original or most authoritative form of a text Variorum edition contains the complete works of an author accompanied by the notes of previous commentators and editors, and indications of the textual changes made during successive printings

45 The variorum edition and a popular edition of Donne’s poems

46 Annotated / Critical editions

47 An annotated edition of Donne’s poems

48 Edition of complete poems with notes

49 Two different editions of Donne’s selected works

50 John Donne The second collection of his poems 1669

51 John Donne The first collection of his poems, 1633

52 A facsimile edition of a porse work by Donne

53 Anthologies of a period / movement

54 Anthologies

55 Series Selections (Oxford World Classics)

56 Series Individual Works (Oxford World Classics)

57 Key Terms for Lecture 1 text book work manuscript typescript Fragment anthology collection oeuvre apocrypha copyright plagiarism sources handbook and manual lexicon dictionary Edition edition first edition enlarged edition revised edition popular edition annotated edition critical edition variorum edition limited edition apparatus bibliography reference index glossary note –footnote –endnote appendix


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