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1 Advanced Databases Temporal Databases Dr Theodoros Manavis

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1 1 Advanced Databases Temporal Databases Dr Theodoros Manavis

2 Why now? Plummeting cost of storage Widespread adoption of warehouse technology has led to an increasing interest in temporal databases The idea of maintaining and processing historical data has become not just a goal but a reality for many organisations

3 Why need temporal data? Ask yourself two questions Does your organisation need to know the situation as it was known at a particular date (e.g. the reprint of the customer's invoice)? Does your business use information that was effective in the past or will become effective in the future (e.g. the new address of the customer)?

4 Temporal DBs – Motivation Conventional databases represent the state of an enterprise at a single moment of time Many applications need information about the past (time-varying data, see next 2 slides) –Financial (payroll) –Medical (patient history) –Government Temporal DBs: a system that manages time varying data

5 What is time varying data? Examples of application domains dealing with time varying data: Financial Apps (e.g. history of stock market data) Insurance Apps (e.g. when were the policies in effect) Reservation Systems (e.g. when is which room in a hotel booked) Medical Information Management Systems (e.g. patient records) Decision Support Systems (e.g. planning future contigencies) HR applications (e.g Date tracked positions in hierarchies)

6 Comparison Conventional DBs: –Evolve through transactions from one state to the next –Changes are viewed as modifications to the state –No information about the past –Snapshot of the enterprise Temporal DBs: –Maintain historical information –Changes are viewed as additions to the information stored in the database –Incorporate notion of time in the system –Efficient access to past states

7 Temporal Databases Temporal Data Models: extension of relational model by adding temporal attributes to each relation Temporal Query Languages: TQUEL, SQL3 (rather controversial field) Temporal Indexing Methods and Query Processing

8 Taxonomy of time Transaction time databases –Transaction time is the time when a fact is stored in the database Valid time databases: –Valid time is the time that a fact becomes effective in reality Bi-temporal databases: –Support both notions of time

9 Example Sales example: data about sales are stored at the end of the day Transaction time is different than valid time Valid time can refer to the future also! –Credit card: 03/01-04/06

10 Transaction Time DBs Time evolves discretely, usually is associated with the transaction number: A record R is extended with an interval [t.start, t.end). When we insert an object at t1 the temporal attributes are updated -> [t1, now) Updates can be made only to the current state! –Past cannot be changed –“Rollback” characteristics T1 -> T2 -> T3 -> T4 ….

11 Transaction Time DBs Transaction time records the time period during which a database entry is accepted as correct. This enables queries that show the state of the database at a given time. Transaction time periods can only occur in the past or up to the current time. In a transaction time table, records are never deleted. Only new records can be inserted, and existing ones updated by setting their transaction end time to show that they are no longer current.

12 Temporal databases We can use these two dimensions to distinguish between different forms of temporal database A rollback database stores data with respect to transaction time A historical database stores data with respect to valid time A bi-temporal database stores data with respect to both valid time and transaction time.

13 Transaction Time DBs Deletion is logical (never physical deletions!) –When an object is deleted at t2, its temporal attribute changes from [t1, now)  [t1, t.t2) (lifetime) –Object is “alive” from insertion to deletion time, ex. t1 to t2. If “now” then the object is still alive eidsalarystartend 1020K9/9310/ K4/94* 3330K5/946/ K1/95* time

14 Transaction Time DBs Database evolves through insertions and deletions id

15 Valid Time DBs Valid time is the time for which a fact is true in the real world. A valid time period may be in the past, span the current time, or occur in the future. Time evolves continuously Each object is a line segment representing its time span (eg. Credit card valid time) Physical deleteion is possible Support full operations on interval data: –Deletion at any time –Insertion at any time –Value change (modification) at any time (no ordering)

16 Bi-temporal DBs A bi-temporal relation contains both valid and transaction time. This provides both historical and rollback information. Historical information (e.g.: "Where did John live in 1992?") is provided by the valid time. Rollback (e.g.: "In 1992, where did the database believe John lived?") is provided by the transaction time. A transaction-time Database, but each record is an interval (plus the other attributes of the record) At each timestamp, it is a valid time database

17 Bitemporal DBs

18 18 Thank You for Your Attention Thank You for Your Attention


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