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The Social Brain: Perspective of a Psychiatrist- in-Training Morton Sosland Research Committee Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) Other committee.

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Presentation on theme: "The Social Brain: Perspective of a Psychiatrist- in-Training Morton Sosland Research Committee Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) Other committee."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Social Brain: Perspective of a Psychiatrist- in-Training Morton Sosland Research Committee Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) Other committee members: Russell Gardner, Beverly Sutton, John Beahrs, Jacob Kerbeshian, Fred Wamboldt, Alan Swann, Johan Verhulst, Michael Schwartz, Carlo Carandang, Doug Kramer, John Looney

2 Copyright SLACK Incorporated Used with Permission Reprint web site Morton D. Sosland, The Social Brain and the Psychiatrist in Training, Psychiatric Annals, 35:10, pp , 2005.

3 The Psychiatry Trainee’s Dilemma MS: Child Psychiatry Fellow on committee for 2 yearsMS: Child Psychiatry Fellow on committee for 2 years Psychiatry divided in biological & psychologicalPsychiatry divided in biological & psychological –Each gives different explanation: For why patients sufferFor why patients suffer For treatment choicesFor treatment choices –Divides psychiatric faculty –Psychiatry training affected in residency and fellowship –Affects available future professional opportunities “Social brain” model helped MS integrate 2 spheres.“Social brain” model helped MS integrate 2 spheres.

4 T.M. Luhrmann wrote (in) Of Two Minds: The Growing Disorder in American Psychiatry “Young psychiatrists are supposed to learn to be equally good at both talk therapy and drug therapy, psychotherapy and biomedical psychiatry, and the American Psychiatric Association thinks that this integration is what training programs in psychiatry teach. Psychiatrists are supposed to understand these approaches as different tools in a common toolbox.”

5 T.M. Luhrmann Of Two Minds “Yet they are taught as different tools, based on different models, and used for different purposes. Some psychiatrists do integrate them to some extent. But those who do have to integrate two approaches that are different from the outset that carry with them different models of the person, different models of causation, and different expectations of how a person might change over time.”

6 Problems for Patients Psychiatrist division & confusion about the cause and treatment for illness so patients feel so equally or morePsychiatrist division & confusion about the cause and treatment for illness so patients feel so equally or more –Chemical imbalance or genetic in nature (biological)? –Or social or psychological? –If chemical or genetic in causation, why use psychotherapy? –If psychological/from family or upbringing, then why medication? Social brain explanations clarify psychiatric illnessSocial brain explanations clarify psychiatric illness –In my own mind, –In the minds of my patients, –And more effective treatment strategies eventuate But social brain is what exactly?But social brain is what exactly?

7 Social Brain Definition I The social brain framework helps organize and explain all psychopathology.The social brain framework helps organize and explain all psychopathology. A single gene-based disorder like Huntington disease is expressed to a large extent as social dysfunction.A single gene-based disorder like Huntington disease is expressed to a large extent as social dysfunction. Conversely, traumatic stress has structural impact on the brain as does the socially interactive process of psychotherapy.Conversely, traumatic stress has structural impact on the brain as does the socially interactive process of psychotherapy.

8 Social Brain Definition II The social brain concept suggestsThe social brain concept suggests Unifying explanation for how brains developedUnifying explanation for how brains developed Why mental illness exists and how it affects usWhy mental illness exists and how it affects us It offers hope for how to treat mental illness more effectively using a unified approach.It offers hope for how to treat mental illness more effectively using a unified approach.

9 Social Brain Definition III Psychiatric disorders fundamentally entail social communication problems for those afflictedPsychiatric disorders fundamentally entail social communication problems for those afflicted Successful human interaction depends on communication with other peopleSuccessful human interaction depends on communication with other people

10 Social Brain Definition IV Attachment stems from collaborative communication.Attachment stems from collaborative communication. Secure attachment involves contingent communication,Secure attachment involves contingent communication, –Signals from one person gain direct response by the other Children learn from parentsChildren learn from parents –Good, loving and functional patterns of behavior or –Dysfunctional behaviors, e.g. AggressionAggression Poor responses to stress, orPoor responses to stress, or Substance abuseSubstance abuse

11 Social Brain on Shoulders of Biopsychosocial Medical students & residents learn biopsychosocial (BPS) model of EngelMedical students & residents learn biopsychosocial (BPS) model of Engel –But they integrate it into practice with difficulty –Gains mention merely in case formulations

12 Social Brain on Shoulders of Biopsychosocial Problem: BPS model often justifies role limitsProblem: BPS model often justifies role limits –Psychiatrist assumes responsibility for drugs –Psychologist & social worker do their respective parts of “biopsychosocial” –Term used quite literally to un-integrate treatment

13 Social Brain Integrates When available and done in an integrated manner, the team approach worksWhen available and done in an integrated manner, the team approach works & all patients, even when no team involved,& all patients, even when no team involved, –Benefit when viewed with 3 components combined Doesn’t replace BPS: social brain idea extends itDoesn’t replace BPS: social brain idea extends it

14 Social Brain Integrates Brain involved in & resulted from social interactions, thereforeBrain involved in & resulted from social interactions, therefore –Social brain defines a biological system at the biological, psychological, and social intersection All thoughts and emotions stem from neural connections and neurotransmitters in the context of social learningAll thoughts and emotions stem from neural connections and neurotransmitters in the context of social learning

15 Social Brain Integrates Interactions possess evolutionary originsInteractions possess evolutionary origins –Across all human beings –Across other species –As well as individual origins Within each person’s early developmentWithin each person’s early development And during life later alsoAnd during life later also Social brain includes language communicationSocial brain includes language communication –With others –A person may communicate with self about self

16 Social Definition in DSM-IV Psychiatry’s social component critically figures in any DSM-IV diagnosisPsychiatry’s social component critically figures in any DSM-IV diagnosis Patient’s inability to function socially or occupationally (occupations represent social functions) makes a critical diagnostic distinction.Patient’s inability to function socially or occupationally (occupations represent social functions) makes a critical diagnostic distinction.

17 Social Definition in DSM-IV Throughout DSM-IV, we read:Throughout DSM-IV, we read: –“The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.” –Helps diagnose Major Depressive Episode, Dementia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Personality Disorders & others. Other specialties differ Other specialties differ –Cardiologists do not need social function to define MI –How one works does not help define diabetes in endocrinology

18 Social Definition in DSM-IV Manic Episode: “The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.”Manic Episode: “The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.” A Schizophrenia criterion refers to social or occupational dysfunctionA Schizophrenia criterion refers to social or occupational dysfunction

19 Social Definition in DSM-IV Substance Abuse diagnosis includes the criterion of “failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.”Substance Abuse diagnosis includes the criterion of “failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.” Many childhood psychiatric disorders possess definitions partially based on the child’s poor social interactionsMany childhood psychiatric disorders possess definitions partially based on the child’s poor social interactions –Pervasive developmental disorders quintessentially defined by social interactions

20 Patients Served Badly by Molecule Model Alone So in view of psychiatric disorders definition,So in view of psychiatric disorders definition, –We do disservice to our patients when these illnesses receive biological treatment only –As though therapy focused on bad molecules alone Using medication constitutes a critical starting point for many patientsUsing medication constitutes a critical starting point for many patients –But their social functioning must improve from drug action –Or a correlated placebo effect Must keep in focus social functioning to help patients heal fullyMust keep in focus social functioning to help patients heal fully

21 ADHD Selected For Some have examined ancient human ancestorsSome have examined ancient human ancestors –GAP Child Committee asked: –Did social environment affect human brains in evolutionary times? Through an evolutionary biological lens, some mental disorders seem an adaptive response to early pathogenic environmentsThrough an evolutionary biological lens, some mental disorders seem an adaptive response to early pathogenic environments And/or they reflect the optimization of brain function to some environments at the cost of poorer response to the demands of other environmentsAnd/or they reflect the optimization of brain function to some environments at the cost of poorer response to the demands of other environments Given current estimated frequency of ADHD (3% to 5%):Given current estimated frequency of ADHD (3% to 5%): –Seems likely such prevalence maintained by selection forces –Certain advantages provided by ADHD characteristics/associated traits

22 How ADHD Selection May Have Worked Early environmental experiences impact structural and functional aspects of cortical development, neuronal activity, & organizationEarly environmental experiences impact structural and functional aspects of cortical development, neuronal activity, & organization Early pathogenic environments likely included harsh prehistoric environmentsEarly pathogenic environments likely included harsh prehistoric environments –To which all humans had to adapt –Then/currently, this may include trauma & neglect To which a child often must adapt individuallyTo which a child often must adapt individually

23 How ADHD Selection May Have Worked Child Committee article examined hunter- gatherer societies & stated:Child Committee article examined hunter- gatherer societies & stated: Some human survival may have depended on hypervigilanceSome human survival may have depended on hypervigilance –“Integrating information through all senses at once,” –Being impulsive – “quick to pounce” –Hyperactivity As in foraging for foodAs in foraging for food Moving toward warmer climesMoving toward warmer climes –As seasons & ice ages come & go

24 How ADHD Selection May Have Worked Also, a “response-ready” individual might possess advantage in brutal or harsh circumstancesAlso, a “response-ready” individual might possess advantage in brutal or harsh circumstances –of frozen steppe or humid jungle Contemplative, more phlegmatic individual may have experienced “environmentally challenge”Contemplative, more phlegmatic individual may have experienced “environmentally challenge”

25 Was Anxiety Selected For? This lens  fresh perspective for Anxiety Disorders: thus, in the ancient pastThis lens  fresh perspective for Anxiety Disorders: thus, in the ancient past –breathing & heart rate if increased rapidly with an autonomic system showing a low threshold for arousal Might have escaped the tigerMight have escaped the tiger –But in today’s environment anxiety or panic attacks do not save one from workplace problems However tiger-like a boss may seemHowever tiger-like a boss may seem

26 Group Membership A neuroimaging study examined subjects rejected by peers in a computer gameA neuroimaging study examined subjects rejected by peers in a computer game –Brain reacted to social rejection as it reacted to pain In same mannerIn same manner In same anterior cingulate cortex locationIn same anterior cingulate cortex location Our brains wire us as social animals.Our brains wire us as social animals. Anciently survival likely depended on group- membership so thatAnciently survival likely depended on group- membership so that –Pain of social rejection  people to remain in social groups

27 Gene-Life Stressors Interact For Depression 5-HTT gene has a promoter region5-HTT gene has a promoter region –either short or long allele Result: Depression more likely with double or single copies of short alleles (s/l or s/s)Result: Depression more likely with double or single copies of short alleles (s/l or s/s) Stressful life events = problems with employment, finances, housing, relationships and the social stress of physical health problemsStressful life events = problems with employment, finances, housing, relationships and the social stress of physical health problems

28 Gene-Life Stressors Interact For Depression More detal: if 4 or more stressful life events happen between the ages of 21 and 26,More detal: if 4 or more stressful life events happen between the ages of 21 and 26, –33% of those with at least one short allele (s/s or s/l) became depressed –compared to 17% of those with the l/l genotype. The study also examined associations between childhood maltreatment between ages 3 and 11 years and adult depression (ages 18 to 26).The study also examined associations between childhood maltreatment between ages 3 and 11 years and adult depression (ages 18 to 26).

29 Gene-Life Stressors Interact For Depression Childhood maltreatment predicted adult depression among individuals carrying an s alleleChildhood maltreatment predicted adult depression among individuals carrying an s allele –Not among the l/l individuals. –l/l abused children may get depressed (But if so, it did not correlate with later depression)(But if so, it did not correlate with later depression) Over half of Caucasian population has s alleleOver half of Caucasian population has s allele –No data on other races

30 Verbal Communication Adaptation over evolutionary time wired human brains for communication among peopleAdaptation over evolutionary time wired human brains for communication among people –Large brain proportion for communication Cerebral cortex does verbal & nonverbal messagingCerebral cortex does verbal & nonverbal messaging –pattern recognition & pattern generation for writing –facial recognition –planning behaviors –suppression of impulses from lower centers.

31 Stories Verbal communication includes human capability critical for using detailed stories toVerbal communication includes human capability critical for using detailed stories to –inform –plan –bonding –gossip, –entertain –help one another in the many ways we do

32 Learning Through Social Interactions Research on stress and genes indicatesResearch on stress and genes indicates –Social interactions  neural connections do not end in early development.do not end in early development. –Social interactions more influence receptive brains early Neurons more plastic thenNeurons more plastic then But brains continue development throughout lifeBut brains continue development throughout life

33 Learning Through Social Interactions Learning causes new connections in brainLearning causes new connections in brain This happens through relationshipsThis happens through relationships –People learn new ways of handling situations –Such happens through psychotherapy. Important learning with parents, siblings, spouses, friends, children, workplace & communityImportant learning with parents, siblings, spouses, friends, children, workplace & community

34 Beliefs We frequently test beliefs and change themWe frequently test beliefs and change them In isolation, belief change harderIn isolation, belief change harder –Versus discussing ideas with another who Reinforces orReinforces or Provides a new perspectiveProvides a new perspective If a new perspective stems from another, one changes beliefs more readilyIf a new perspective stems from another, one changes beliefs more readily

35 Beliefs Some stick to dysfunctional relationship patternsSome stick to dysfunctional relationship patterns Those thrive best if open to life-long learningThose thrive best if open to life-long learning They work on improving relationships byThey work on improving relationships by –Testing out old patterns of behavior –Rejecting dysfunctional beliefs –Developing new beliefs –Evolving new approaches to life

36 Social Learning Theory Rockland: Behavior, personal factors, and social forces all operate as interlocking determinants of one anotherRockland: Behavior, personal factors, and social forces all operate as interlocking determinants of one another –Behavior stems from the environment –People play roles in creating the social milieu & other circumstances that arise in their daily transactions. Humans: advanced capacity for observational learningHumans: advanced capacity for observational learning –Enables them knowledge and skills expansion –From modeling influences

37 Two Memory Systems Learning involves two memory systems used togetherLearning involves two memory systems used together –Declarative or explicit system and –Procedural or implicit system involves Striatum mediate skills & habitsStriatum mediate skills & habits Amygdalae (+ neocortex & cerebellum) mediate emotionsAmygdalae (+ neocortex & cerebellum) mediate emotions Unconscious physical & emotional memories work in theseUnconscious physical & emotional memories work in these –When something new learned, declarative memory works 1 st & procedural memory to variable extents& procedural memory to variable extents –Constant repetition moves declarative to procedural Such as driving a carSuch as driving a car

38 Two Memory Systems Experience of frightening situation or traumatic eventExperience of frightening situation or traumatic event –  declarative memories in hippocampus mix –with emotional memories in amygdala –Person may later feel depressed & anxious when emotional memories reactivate Procedural and emotional memories in the amgydalaProcedural and emotional memories in the amgydala –May  body’s autonomic system leading to fight or flight reactionsleading to fight or flight reactions Faster breathing & heart rate with sweating skinFaster breathing & heart rate with sweating skin –Reactions = PTSD symptoms.

39 Brain-Affected Patients Combined medication & psychotherapy works better than either aloneCombined medication & psychotherapy works better than either alone Even diagnoses viewed as primarily “biological” benefit from psychotherapyEven diagnoses viewed as primarily “biological” benefit from psychotherapy Psychotherapy of course is not unbiologicalPsychotherapy of course is not unbiological

40 ADHD ADHD exemplifies a disorder with a large neurobiological & genetic componentADHD exemplifies a disorder with a large neurobiological & genetic component NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA):NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA): –Combined medication-behavior management = 68% success –Medical management only = 56% success –Behavior therapy alone = 34% success –Combined improvement compared to others statistically significant

41 Combined Bipolar Treatment Best Agreement: one with bipolar disorder needs medicationAgreement: one with bipolar disorder needs medication –Yet psychotherapy makes a significant difference Lam et al examined cognitive therapy adjunctivelyLam et al examined cognitive therapy adjunctively –103 patients with bipolar disorder –Randomized design Cognitive tx group: 14 psychotherapy sessions in 1 st half year 2 booster sessions during 2 nd half yearCognitive tx group: 14 psychotherapy sessions in 1 st half year 2 booster sessions during 2 nd half year Relapse results over the year:Relapse results over the year: –Without cognitive tx: 75 % –With cognitive tx: 44 %

42 Combined Bipolar Tx: More Results Controls without cog tx:Controls without cog tx: –>3-fold more time in bipolar episodes (mean, 88 days) Compared with cognitive therapy group (mean, 27 days).Compared with cognitive therapy group (mean, 27 days). –33% without cog tx needed hospital adm for bipolar episodes Compared to 15 % of patients with therapyCompared to 15 % of patients with therapy Cognitive therapy: patients developed skills to monitor moodsCognitive therapy: patients developed skills to monitor moods –Plus any prodromal symptoms –Modified moods/behavior before prodrome full-blown Therapy promoted sleep & routineTherapy promoted sleep & routine –Also medication compliance

43 Combined Schizophrenia Tx Psychotic beliefs blossom ifPsychotic beliefs blossom if –Isolation continued –No opportunity nor desire to reality-test Cognitive Behavioral therapists encourage patientsCognitive Behavioral therapists encourage patients –To examine alternative explanations –With sometimes profound results, e.g., When auditory hallucinations become not outside forceWhen auditory hallucinations become not outside force But strong thoughts in their heads.But strong thoughts in their heads. Patient may also learn behavioral techniques that stop voicesPatient may also learn behavioral techniques that stop voices –This reduces stress to internal voice with lessened reaction Changes in cells and molecules still result in schizophrenia butChanges in cells and molecules still result in schizophrenia but –Isolation + lack of reality testing  worsened illness

44 MS Experience with OP Tx of Schizophrenia Co-led with M.W. Deibler group with schizophrenia.Co-led with M.W. Deibler group with schizophrenia. –Several heard auditory hallucinations during sessions. –Focused on testing out behavioral strategies, such as humming or reading, to control auditory experience –Plus looked at alternative explanations for voices Social form of group therapy proved helpful to severalSocial form of group therapy proved helpful to several –Isolative hallucination changed to controllable experience –Observational learning when saw others learn to cope

45 Turkington: OP Tx of Schizophrenia Psychologic meanings help in psychotx adjunctive to medicationPsychologic meanings help in psychotx adjunctive to medication –Beneath systematized delusions and derogatory hallucinations lies a personalized meaning, or a schema, that drives symptoms –A personal storyline “I am a bad person” idea may foster a voice that expresses it“I am a bad person” idea may foster a voice that expresses it –In response, patient forms beliefs about the voice, –e.g., devil speaks, or alien sources produce the sounds

46 Turkington: OP Tx of Schizophrenia Frightening interpretations may trigger anxiety & withdrawalFrightening interpretations may trigger anxiety & withdrawal –This worsens more hallucinations & other symptoms Cognitive & behavioral interventionsCognitive & behavioral interventions –Include alternative explanations for the voices –Relaxation training to reduce anxiety, –Activity scheduling, –A voice diary to encourage patients to dispute the content of the voices therefore to gain control over themtherefore to gain control over them –Plus other strategies for advanced coping

47 Split Treatment: Challenge So social brain thinking with implications meansSo social brain thinking with implications means –Psychotherapy & other social interventions should happen as well as medication Challenge: combined approach difficultChallenge: combined approach difficult –In era of managed care –Split model of psychiatrist-therapist Separate functions determined by fundingSeparate functions determined by funding

48 Split Treatment: Challenge Many work where medicating = responsibilityMany work where medicating = responsibility But patients’ social relationships help understand recoveryBut patients’ social relationships help understand recovery Should enhance the placebo effect to its fullestShould enhance the placebo effect to its fullest Engage meaningfully with patientEngage meaningfully with patient –Inquire on compliance Including reasons for non-complianceIncluding reasons for non-compliance

49 Split Treatment: Challenge Must meet with families as well as patients as the circumstance warrantsMust meet with families as well as patients as the circumstance warrants –For children, this takes on critical dimensions Plus abbreviated psychotherapy may happen in limited timePlus abbreviated psychotherapy may happen in limited time If framework of split treatment model holdsIf framework of split treatment model holds –Then work with therapists/social workers  more integrated approach

50 Split Treatment: Challenge Many psychiatrists for various reasons choose to focus more on the biological side of psychiatry,Many psychiatrists for various reasons choose to focus more on the biological side of psychiatry, –They limit their model of diagnosis & treatment But error to omit recognition/appreciation of the social side of treatmentBut error to omit recognition/appreciation of the social side of treatment –Incredibly important –regardless of how intervention happens Plus we need to assist patients in social interactions in the community and with their familiesPlus we need to assist patients in social interactions in the community and with their families –Think of vocational training or continuing education

51 Split Treatment: Challenge Even with a newest antipsychotic or antidepressantEven with a newest antipsychotic or antidepressant –Just sitting home alone bored –Patients more likely relapse into depression or psychosis As one woman with schizoaffective disorder saidAs one woman with schizoaffective disorder said –“An idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” Vocational Training doesn’t work in all cases, butVocational Training doesn’t work in all cases, but –When it does it gives a purpose in life –It enhances quality of life & self-esteem. It provides an identity beyond that of patient.It provides an identity beyond that of patient.

52 MS Conclusions for Psychiatrist in Training As a psychiatrist in training, I felt excitedAs a psychiatrist in training, I felt excited –About using various sociophysiological interventions –Only with both communication & drugscan one most effectively treat Psychiatric Annals offered a past issue on treatment resistant depressionPsychiatric Annals offered a past issue on treatment resistant depression –ECT, adjunctive medication, & cognitive behavior therapy each possessed empirical support To help patients bestTo help patients best –Patients need biological, psychological & social interventions –According to particular situations & characteristics

53 References Luhrmann TM. Of Two Minds: The Growing Disorder in American Psychiatry. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf; p. 7.Luhrmann TM. Of Two Minds: The Growing Disorder in American Psychiatry. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf; p. 7. Jensen, PS, Mrazek D, Knapp PK, Steinberg, L, Pfeffer, C, Schowalter J, Shapiro, T. Evolution and Revolution in Child Psychiatry: ADHD as a Disorder of Adaptation. J. Am Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 36:12, Dec Jensen, PS, Mrazek D, Knapp PK, Steinberg, L, Pfeffer, C, Schowalter J, Shapiro, T. Evolution and Revolution in Child Psychiatry: ADHD as a Disorder of Adaptation. J. Am Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 36:12, Dec Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD. Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science. 2003;302: Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD. Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science. 2003;302: Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, Taylor A, Craig IW, Harrington H, McClay J, Mill J, Martin J, Braithwaite A, Poulton R. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science. Vol 301, 18 July 2003, Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE, Taylor A, Craig IW, Harrington H, McClay J, Mill J, Martin J, Braithwaite A, Poulton R. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science. Vol 301, 18 July 2003, Hjelle, L.A. and Ziegler, DJ, Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research, and Applications, third edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA, 1992 p 336.Hjelle, L.A. and Ziegler, DJ, Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research, and Applications, third edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA, 1992 p 336. Rockland, LH. Supportive Therapy: A Psychodynamic Approach. Basic Books, (1989) United States of America. pp Rockland, LH. Supportive Therapy: A Psychodynamic Approach. Basic Books, (1989) United States of America. pp Kandel, ER. Biology and the Future of Psychoanalysis: A new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited. Am J. Psychiatry 156:4. April Kandel, ER. Biology and the Future of Psychoanalysis: A new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited. Am J. Psychiatry 156:4. April Swanson, JM. Clinical Relevance of the Primary Findings of the MTA: Success Rates Based on Severity of ADHD and ODD Symptoms at the End of Treatment. J of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 40 (2), Feb 2001, pp Swanson, JM. Clinical Relevance of the Primary Findings of the MTA: Success Rates Based on Severity of ADHD and ODD Symptoms at the End of Treatment. J of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 40 (2), Feb 2001, pp Lam DH, Watkins ER, Hayward P, Bright, J, Wright K, Kerr N, Parr-Davis G, Sham P. A randomized controlled study of cognitive therapy for relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Vol 60, Feb Lam DH, Watkins ER, Hayward P, Bright, J, Wright K, Kerr N, Parr-Davis G, Sham P. A randomized controlled study of cognitive therapy for relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Vol 60, Feb Turkington, D. Psychologic Mechanisms of Psychosis. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Advanced Studies in Medicine. Vol 3, Sept S773-S775.Turkington, D. Psychologic Mechanisms of Psychosis. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Advanced Studies in Medicine. Vol 3, Sept S773-S775.


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