Presentation on theme: "Citation Indexing ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports"— Presentation transcript:
1 Citation Indexing ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports Tracy MatthewsThomson Scientific
2 So, What is a Citation Index? In addition to standard bibliographic information a citation index includes the cited references of the items indexed.An author implies a subject relationship when he or she cites a work:“the act of citing is an expression of the importance of the material.”References serve to essentially replace a controlled vocabularyOther terms for Cited References are: reference list, works cited, bibliography.Dr. Garfield goes on to explain “The total number of expressions [citations] is about the most objective measure there is of the materials importance to current research.”Concept of a citation index to the scientific literature, according to Dr. Garfield, developed from “bits and pieces of experience and insight accumulated over a period of a few years.”In addition to his work with the Welch Medical Library Project:Chemical Abstracts (voluntary abstract work for CA)utility of abstracts increases by including references to abstracts of key papers cited by the authorsSpecial Study of Review ArticlesProvide scientists with guideposts to the literature. Noted that nearly every sentence in a review article is supported by a citation and that that sentence provided a pithy abstract of the cited work itselfShepard’s Citations (next slide)
3 Things to Keep in Mind . . .Authors cite works both to support and to refute them. There are no codes in the ISI database to tell you why an item is cited.ISI Cited References are not an attempt to re-create a bibliography word for word. 1st listed author’s surname & up to 3 initialsAbbreviated title of the cited workVolume, starting page, and cited year.Remember that citations are captured as cited. Some disciplines have between a % citation error rate. ISI’s citation error rate is lower because many citation errors are unified with the correct citation automatically.
4 ISI Citation Indexes Bibliography entry: ISI Cited Reference: Wheatley A & Armstrong C. (1997). Metadata, recall, and abstracts: can abstracts ever be reliable indicators of document value? ASLIB Proceedings 49 (8):ISI Cited Reference:WHEATLEY A ASLIB PROCNote that only the first listed author is included in the cited reference, along with an abbreviation for the journal title.
5 Shepardizing In 1953 Dr. Garfield learns of Shepard’s Citations Developed in 1873, the oldest major citation index in existenceAmerican legal system is based on precedentShepard’s lists the citations to precedents used in cases decided by the courts and federal administrative agenciesProvides a model for how a citation index could be organized into an effective search toolGarfield was not the first to create a citation index.Shepard’s is a “case citator”:document changes in legal effect of court casesidentify any subsequent legal action that may have reversed or overruled an earlier decision.Science is also based on precedent
6 Welch Medical Library Project Dr. Garfield becomes interested in machine generated term indexing:generate terms that effectively describe the “aboutness” of a documentdo this without the need of intellectual judgements from human indexersFrom this interest citation indexing.The citation index, according to Garfield would eliminate this need for the intellectual judgements of human indexerssave timesave moneydecrease subjective and often inconsistent judgments made by human indexers
7 Pilot Citation Indexes ISI produces the 1961 Genetics Citation Index with a grant from the National Institutes of HealthCompile a comprehensive, multidisciplinary databaseExtract relevant genetics materialProvided a more comprehensive, deeper view of the literature than conventional subject indexes.Original comprehensive database consisted of citations of all the material published in 1961 by the 600 journals covered by Current Contents and of all the references in that material.The source journals included both general works--such as Science andNature--and specialized journals from a range of disciplines.
8 Pilot Citation Indexes The multidisciplinary index provided several distinct advantages:Illuminated the bounds of a particular disciplineInsights into patterns of scholarly communication and journal networksRevealed the historical development of scientific thoughtIndicated the implications and impact of a particular workThey found that the advantages of the index increased as they went from narrow (genetics) to broad (multidisciplinary).
9 ISI Citation IndexesISI’s findings compelled them to create the Science Citation Index.The Social Sciences Index followed in 1973.The Arts & Humanities Index was introduced in 1978.ISI published the SCI after the government rejected the recommendation to create a broad, multidisciplinary database.
10 Benefits of a Citation Index Allows searching forward in time.Take a known paper and find out who is citing it.Classification terms in subject indexes can be ambiguous.Citations are bound to concepts instead of vocabulary.Put a work in context. What progress has been made in that area since the work’s publication?Also use a citation index to find:Has a basic concept been applied elsewhere?Has a theory been confirmed or refuted?Have there been any correction notes published?
11 Benefits of a Citation Index Multidisciplinary Citation Indices allow for serendipitous discoveryA subject-specific index might not have index terms for each concept in a given article.Ex. Space debrisUse a relevant current events topic to illustrate this point. Try a science topic with a geopolitical aspect. (A chemistry index would not necessarily be able to capture the political policy aspects of an article on global warming and greenhouse gas emission standards.)
12 Uses of Citation Analysis Researcher evaluationUse as a starting point in promotion and tenure decisions.Competitive intelligenceFind out what competitors are publishing and citing.Mapping relationships between subject areasBibliometric researchers determine relationships between disciplines.Editors may use it to determine their competitive positionInformation scientists interested in studying the structure of the literatureLibrarians managing journal collectionsResearchers needing to identify useful journals outside of her or his own subject areaAlso: find out what impact a particular researcher or scholar has on a field of study.
13 Macro Citation Analysis JCR Impact FactorHow often is the typical article from a specific journal cited?Institutional Journal Use AnalysisSelection, retention, archiving, and storage decisionsWhich journals are the faculty at your institution using the most?Data from citation indexes aggregated in the Journal Citation ReportsCan be used as a factor in journal evaluationFrom the data a variety of measurments are createdMost important is the impact factorCertain types of journals are more or less cited than othersreview journals v. more news-oriented journalsCertain disciplines may have higher impact factorsgenetics v. chemical engineering with an IF of 2.0
15 Database Production and Extraction ISI DatabaseJournal/Book acquisitionItem Selection and Data CaptureManual Indexing/ Translation (for foreign language journals and some A&H content)Processing Time 1-2 WeeksAppearance of itemin ISI’s productsScanning & OCR
17 New Cited References Weekly Journal CoverageCovered JournalsNew Records WeeklyNew Cited References WeeklyScience Citation Index Expanded6,03418,800431,000Social Sciences Citation Index1,7642.60059,100Arts & Humanities Citation Index1,1212,10015,900
18 Full Bibliographic Record All author names are indexed and searchable. ISI indexes an author’s complete last name andup to five initials.The complete abstract is indexed and searchable.
19 Full Bibliographic Record (continued) Author Keywords are indexed when included with the published item.KeyWords Plus are harvested from the titles of the cited articles.Author affiliations are indexed when available with the published item. The reprint author’saddress is listed as the first address in the field.
20 Full Record / Elements Author name All authors indexed and searchable – last name and up to 5 initialsTitleComplete article title as published. Non-English titles translated into US EnglishSource InformationJournal title, Volume, Issue, Page Range, DateAbstractFull author abstractAuthor KeywordsWhen included in original publicationKeyWords PlusSelected from titles of cited referencesAddressAuthor affiliations are captured when provided. First line of address field lists reprint author address
21 Cited References Cited References in blue are links to full records. (Limitedby your subscribeddata years.)
22 Cited References (continued) Cited References in plain text arecitations to items outsideof your coverage; to items ISIdoesn’t index (books, etc.); or toitems that have been citedincorrectly by the author (citedreference variants.)
25 * ? $ Truncation Symbol Retrieves Zero or more characters Zero or one character?One character only
26 Boolean Operators All search terms must occur to be retrieved. TOPIC: aspartame AND cancer*Retrieves documents that contain both aspartame and cancer*.Any one of the search terms must occur to be retrieved. Use when searching variants and synonyms.TOPIC: aspartame OR saccharine OR sweetener*Retrieves documents that contain at least one of the terms.Excludes records that contain a given search term.TOPIC: aids NOT hearingRetrieves documents with aids, excluding any which also contain hearing.
27 Proximity Operators Implied Adjacency By default, searching a phrase retrieves records that contain the adjacent terms in the same order.SameTerms must occur within the same sentence, where “sentence” is generally a period-delimited string, in any order. In keyword fields, the SAME operator will retrieve records with search terms in the same keyword phrase.