Presentation on theme: "The Learned Dog Class 2: Dog training through the centuries..."— Presentation transcript:
The Learned Dog Class 2: Dog training through the centuries...
A couple of quick things... Details on open-book/take-home “quizzes” will be emailed out March 10th and April 14th due the following class (March 17th & April 21st) if you need an extension, I will grant NQA extension to the following week Clicker Basics available from www.cleanrun.comwww.cleanrun.com Next week: Temple Grandin
Ancient Greece: horses Xenophon (1962 reprint of 1894 translation of original greek). The Art of Horsemanship. London, UK, J.A. Allen. Importance of socialization Association incl. Law of Effect & Premack Dealing with fear
Ancient Greece: dogs Hull, D. B. (1964). Hounds and Hunting in Ancient Greece. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press. Xenophon’s (well somebody’s) Cynegeticus circa 400BC Arrian’s Cynegeticus circa 100 AD
Europe, pre-late 19th century Rossignol, J. E. L. (1892). "The Training of Animals." The American Journal of Psychology 5(2): 205-213. Survey of books on animal training (1750 on) Observational learning Luring Role of instinct Splitting not lumping Imprinting and developmental environment
Mid to late 19th century (America) Hammond, S. T. S. (1885). Practical Dog Training; or Training vs. Breaking. NY, NY, Forest & Stream Publishing Co. Response to harsh training techniques of the day: positive reinforcement vs. punishment
Traditional terrier trainers... Lee, R. (1889). A history and description with reminiscences of the Fox Terrier. London, UK, Horace Cox. Bristow-Noble, J. C. (1919). Working Terriers. London, UK, F.V. White & Co., LTD. Smith, A. C., Ed. (1937). Terriers, their training, working and management. London, UK, Seeley, Service & Co. Ltd. Plummer, D. B. (1978). The Working Terrier. Ipswich, UK, The Boydell Press. Plummer, D. B. (1980). The Complete Jack Russell Terrier. Ipswich, UK, The Boydell Press.
Germany, 1910: a book that presages many of the key ideas in modern training Most, K. (1910, reprinted 2001). Training Dogs: A Manual. Wenatchee, WA, Dogwise Press. “Most demonstrated an understanding of operant conditioning concepts such as primary and secondary reinforcement, shaping and chaining 28 years before the publication of B.F. Skinner’s The Behavior of Organisms. “ Burch, M. R. and J. S. Bailey (1999). How Dogs Learn. New York, NY, Howell Book House. Big believer in negative reinforcement (compulsion) followed by immediate positive reinforcement First that I have found to use “pack” as a training idea
Time line of dog training in the US Burch, M. R. and J. S. Bailey (1999). How Dogs Learn. New York, NY, Howell Book House.
The Learned Dog – Class 2 Recent History of Dog Training
Influences of the 50’s and 60’s AKC Obedience trials gain popularity Companion dog training is introduced to public Blanche Saunders & Helene Whitehouse Walker –The Complete Book of Dog Obedience, 1954 and The Story of Dog Obedience, 1974 both by Saunders –Saunders a student of Weber –Weber a student of Col. Konrad Most –“Traditional Training” came from military dog training via Most and his book Training Dogs – A Manual of 1910
Influential Trainers of the 50’s and 60’s Winfred Strickland A student of Saunders Competitor, AKC judge, author Shift towards more positive training methods Milo Pearsall Published in 1958 Dog Obedience Training Uses both R+ and punishment, known as a gentler approach Did seminars and clinics
Influential Trainers of the 60’s and 70’s William Koehler Military and police dog training Hollywood dogs Published, The Koehler Method of Training, 1962 Method focuses on punishment vs. positive Very stressful for dogs and trainers Anecdotal Info: He used R+ in his training for Hollywood Very influential throughout the 70’s and 80’s
Influential Trainers of the 60’s and 70’s Barbara Woodhouse One of the first TV dog trainers! “Walkies” ! Became a household name via TV and books Training becomes popular with the pet owner She used both punishment and some positive Mathew Margolis, “Uncle Matty” A big influence via TV and books Leans towards more praise
Influential Trainers of the 80’s and 90’s We begin to move towards the positive… Jack and Wendy Volhard and Gail Fisher Bring a methodical view to obedience and pet dog training Bring a methodical view to train trainers Dr. Ian Dunbar The father of puppy and positive food training Via books, videos, seminars and TV series Really pushed the importance of training pet dogs The catalyst for Association of Pet Dog Trainers
Influential Trainers of the 80’s and 90’s Karen Pryor writes Don’t Shoot the Dog –A guide to interpersonal relationships which brings operant conditioning to the light Karen Pryor & Gary Wilkes Begin to really push clicker training with dogs around 1992 with lectures around the country
Present day training An Industry grows Internet Training & Behavior Associations Association examples: APDT, CCPDT Independent Certification available CPDT Certified Pet Dog Trainer Science based training using more positive reinforcement grows A more educated consumer Education opportunities for trainers expand Move away from obedience clubs to training centers
Present day training Sometimes a step backwards Media trainers Quick fixes for the public Can be dangerous for dogs and people The current science trends are looking at Cognition and animals Emotions in humans and animals How emotions effects learning As time goes on this is and will have an impact on dog training
The take home message... There has been a continuing ebb and flow of... the relative emphasis on reinforcement vs. punishment the relative importance of understanding the natural behavior of dogs dogs as pack animals (and humans as members of the pack...) the interplay between genetics, development and training, i.e., the limits of training
Key questions... Associations... What gets associated with what? Event & Event, Event & Action, Action & Outcome What determines if an association gets made? Repetition, surprise, importance, contiguity & order in time & space? Are all associations made equally easily & quickly, and if not, why not? Are the rules the same regardless of the type of association?
Key questions What is the role of variability vs. consistency? Why are each important? When is variability important, when is consistency important? What is the role of surprise? When does the most rapid learning occur?
Key questions What, Why and How of different training techniques? Reward Punishment Shaping Luring When is each appropriate? Side-effects?
Key questions Different techniques for different audiences? Skilled trainers People who are learning how to be trainers while training their own dog People who “just want” a well-behaved dog
The big challenge moving forward... Training requires a variety of skills: observation, timing, analysis... Learning on the job, and their goal is typically a dog that doesn’t do X and comes when they are called, not becoming a better trainer. How do we make this easier? Operant & classical conditioning are only one part of the puzzle, but we are still finding our way with respect to understanding the role of emotion. Training is only one part of the equation of what a dog will become. We need to approach the problem holistically: genetics, development, training & environment. But this is anything but simple.