7 Good filmFor AP upper ribs: Posterior ribs 1-10 above the diaphragm, both sides should be seen above the diaphragm and include in their entiretyFor AP lower ribs: Posterior ribs 8-12 below the diaphragm, both sides should be seen below the diaphragm and include in their entiretyRibs should be seen clearly through the lungs or abdomen according to the region examined. The AP views are done to see the bodies of the ribs.
8 Structures Shown:RPO/LPO in this projection the axillary portion of the ribs are projected free of self-superimposition. The posterior ribs are also well demonstrated.LPOLeft side down
13 Good film:There should be approximately twice as much distance between the vertebral column and the outer border of the ribs on the affected side as there is on the unaffected sideAxillary portion of the ribs should be demonstrated free of superimposition
15 What is shown:RAO method shows a slightly oblique PA projection of the sternum. The breathing motion obliterates the pulmonary markingsStructure shown: The entire sternum from jugular notch to tip of xiphoid
19 Good Film:Entire manubrium to the tip of the xiphoid should be includedVisibility of the sternum through the thorax should be reasonably goodSternum should be projected just free of superimposition from vertebral columnSternum should be projected into the cardiac shadow**Breathing technique: to blur pulmonary markings
20 Structure shown: Lateral projection of the entire length of the sternum is demonstrated showing the superimposed sternoclavicular joints and medial ends of the clavicles
22 Sternoclavicular Articulations: RAOLAOAxiolateral-Kurzbauer method of the affected side (not in book)
23 Structures shown:This method presents a slightly oblique projection of the sternoclavicular joints. Shows the joint closer to the film with less distortion.**LAO: Left side down: The joint closest to the IR is shown (left)
25 Good film:SC jnts of interest should be in the center of the film (down side)Manubrium and medial ends of clavicles should be includedSC jnts space should be openSC jnts of interest should be directly in front of the vertebral column with minimal obliquityVisibility of the SC jnt through the superimposing rib and lung fields should be reasonably good
26 Adjust the position of the cassette so that its midpoint will coincide with the CR. Respiration is suspended at the end of full inhalation.Direct the CR through the lowermost sternoclavicular articulation at an angle of 15 degrees caudal.
27 Structures shown: This method presents an unobstructed lateral projection of the sternoclavicular articulation adjacent to the film