Presentation on theme: "Developing Behavioral Plans For Aggressive Children in California Bruce M. Gale, PhD Clinical Psychologist PSY10598 Santa Monica, CA April 7, 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Developing Behavioral Plans For Aggressive Children in California Bruce M. Gale, PhD Clinical Psychologist PSY10598 Santa Monica, CA April 7, 2006
Note The information that follows is an excerpt from Diana Browning Wright’s 2006 NASP talk. Diana gave me permission to incorporate this information into my talk and it represents an update from the 2005 information that was in the handout. You will be able to access this information in its entirety once it has been posted to the PENT web site at: If you are learning more about Dr. Gale’s presentations on managing aggression in schools, click here. click here click here
Proven Methods of Teaching Staff to Write Effective Behavior Intervention Plans Diana Browning Wright M.S., L.E.P., Behavior Analyst CDE-Diagnostic Center, Southern California Director, Positive Environments, Network Of Trainers (PENT) NASP Convention – Anaheim, March 2006 Presented by:
Diagnostic Centers California Department of Education ► Diagnostic Center, South ► 4339 State University Drive ► Los Angeles, CA (323) cde.ca.gov cde.ca.gov
Behavior Support Plans Behavior Intervention Plans Why? ► It’s the law! ► It is best practice ► It improves outcomes ► It increases staff morale
IDEA 97, and now 2004 ► Special Factors Behavior impeding learning of student or peers Requires strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports interventions, strategies and supports Requires staff be informed of their specific responsibilities
IDEA 97, and now 2004 ► Discipline Requires FBA (and likely a plan) for suspensions past 10 days suspensions past 10 days Requires FBA and MD for involuntary placement change (expulsion is an involuntary placement change) and likely a plan ► Interim Alternate Placements Requires services to prevent behavior from reoccurring, likely a plan
Behavior Support Plans ► For whom? Any student who needs one!
“I know the kids don’t like you and they pick on you, but you have to go to school… you’re the teacher!” Behavior Support Plans - Why?
Behavior Support Plans ► MUST be done by a team ► Who makes up the team? Everyone relevant to the implementation Including the student when student when possible possible
► ► Forms ► ► Behavior Support Plan, Quality Evaluation Guide (BSP-QE) ► ► Materials to support teacher effectiveness ► ► PPTs of this training, and more! Plus, handouts for training Manual: ► ► Tools to Develop, Implement and Score a BSP (under revision to match revised BSP-QE) ► ► And much, much more
FBA Report (Disciplinary Context)
Expanded Behavior Intervention Plans ► California: first in nation with “functional assessment” based behavior plans for students with disabilities and severe behavior ► Use Supplementary Forms when: the IEP team says the behavior is “severe” a behavior specialist has supervised or conducted a very extensive functional assessment When a highly data driven plan is required required
Coversheet – Section 1:
FAA Data Collection – Section 2:
Core Plan – Section 3:
PBIP Data Collection – Section 4:
Three Options for Using a BSP 1.IDEA/504 - Use the BSP as an attachment The BSP is used to designate the positive behavioral supports required when “behavior is impeding learning” under Federal I.D.E.A. This BSP attaches to an IEP or 504 plan for students with exceptional needs.
Three Options for Using the BSP 2.Best Practices-Student Assistance Teams - Use the BSP as a stand- alone The BSP is used by the student assistance team to designate the positive behavioral supports for any student with behavior support needs. This BSP attaches to any team notes to be given to implementers.
Use BSP as the “Core” Behavior Plan 3.High documentation required The Core Behavior Plan combines with the other 3 sections to become a complete plan for “ serious behavior ” “ Serious ” behavior likely to require a highly data-driven plan -Assaultive -Self- injurious - Severe property damage -Other Pervasive, Maladaptive Behavior
Behavior Support Plans ► Focus on… SUPPORTvs.Management
Behavior Support Plans ► Focus on… FUNCTIONvs.Consequences
Behavior Support Plans ► Focus on… ANTECEDENTSvs.Consequences
Behavior Support Plans ► Focus on… TEACHINGvs.Controlling
QUALITY Behavior Plans ► All effective plans address both the environment and the function of the behavior Change environments to eliminate the need to use this behavior Teach alternative, acceptable behavior (functionally equivalent replacement behavior) which allow student to get or reject something in an acceptable manner. manner.
What IS the Positive Behavior Support Process ? ► A data-driven team approach with built-in accountability Follows a carefully look at the context of the problem behavior Hypothesizes why the behavior is occurring. Develops a plan to teach the student a replacement behavior and new skills Changes environments to match student needs Involves people who really care about the student Develops a written plan capturing the team’s decisions and methods
Key Concept: This behavior has worked in the past, or it is currently working to either: 1)GET something the student desires or 2)REJECT avoid or protest something the student wishes to remove. All behavior has a function!
Method: Observing the student in the problem situation and interviewing others who are frequently present when the problem occurs is required. Focusing on the student’s facial expression and the response of others often yields cues as to what the function of the behavior may be.
Examples of functions of behavior: Billy Billy throws his work on the floor because it is hard work for him. When he does this, his face shows anger and frustration. His actions are a protest, an attempt to reject. Fictitious picture
Examples of functions of behavior: Dolores Dolores giggles and disrupts peers around her because she enjoys the attention and reactions she gets and her face shows pleasure and excitement. Her actions are to get social attention, even when that attention from peers is one of displeasure and disapproval.
Examples of functions of behavior: Bruce Bruce uses swear words not related to what is going on around him. His face shows pleasure and excitement and he uses these words as a method of starting a conversation, e.g., his peers immediately tell him not to use these words and start conversing with him about the use of appropriate language. His actions are to get social interactions started.
2. Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Behavior is related to the context/ environment in which it occurs. Key Concept: Something is either present in the environment, or NOT present in the environment which increases the like- lihood the problem behavior will occur.
Requirement: The behavior plan must identify what environmental features support the problem behavior. This is necessary in order to know what environmental changes will remove the student’s need to use the problem behavior to achieve something he or she desired.
Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: Billy Billy has NOT YET received support to complete difficult work. He throws math or reading worksheets that appear long and hard to him on the floor.
Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: Dolores Dolores has NOT YET received direct instruction on how to appropriately make and keep friends. Her peers reinforce her behavior inadvertently by their strong responses. Her peers have neither learned how to reinforce her for appropriate behavior, nor learned how to change their loud expressions of disapproval in response to Dolores’ behavior.
Examples of context/environment impact on problem behavior: Bruce Bruce has NOT YET received instruction on how to initiate social conversation without the use of his attention-getting swear words. His peers have not learned how to direct Bruce to use the alternative method of attention-seeking rather than giving him attention by correcting him for his attention-seeking behaviors. They will be important in shaping a new behavior.
3. Positive Behavioral Support Principle: There are two strands to a complete behavior plan—environment and function. Key Concept: Changing behavior requires addressing both the environmental features (removing the need for use of problem behavior to get needs met) AND developing a replacement behavior (teaching a functionally-equivalent behavior that student can use to get that same need met in an acceptable way).
Examples of two strand, complete approaches: Billy Billy’s team decided, and his teacher agreed, that she will alter his assignments so that hard work will not appear overwhelming to him (remove need to protest). Billy will be taught an acceptable protest for work that appears difficult, such as calling the teacher over and telling her the work appears long and hard (functionally- equivalent alternative behavior).
Examples of two strand, complete approaches: Dolores Dolores’ team, decided she will receive instruction on how to make and keep friends. Her peers will receive instruction in how to calmly redirect her to use appropriate interactions to achieve their brief expressions of approval (remove need to get social attention in maladaptive ways). Dolores will learn brief interactions during work periods that result in social approval from her peers, yet do not disrupt others (get social attention with functionally-equivalent alternative behavior).
Examples of two strand, complete approaches: Bruce Bruce’s teachers will provide collaborative learning opportunities that allow Bruce to be in sustained social interactions with his peers (removes need to use swear words to start a social interaction). Bruce will be taught specific social interaction initiation techniques and his peers will be taught how to prompt him to use these techniques (functionally equivalent ways of starting a social dialogue).
4. Positive Behavioral Support Principle: New behavior must get a pay-off as big or bigger than the problem behavior. Key Concept: To achieve maintenance of a new behavior, it must be reinforced. Reinforcement is actions we take, privileges or tangibles we give, that the student really wants to get, and therefore he/she does the behavior again and again to get that reinforcement. Power, Frequency, Variety, Immediacy
Examples of Reinforcement of Replacement Behavior: Billy Billy’s teacher will praise his use of the new form of protest behavior his behavior plan suggests, i.e., calling her over to tell the teacher the work looks hard. (Efficacy evidence: Billy’s classroom and home behavior shows he is really pleased by any positive attention from adults.) She will also send home daily report cards describing his use of the new behavior and Billy’s parents will amply praise his new skill at home.
5. Positive Behavioral Support Principle: Implementers need to know how to handle problem behavior if it occurs again. Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages: 1)Beginning stage: Prompting the alternative replacement behavior or reorienting with supports;
Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages: 2) Mid-behavior stage: The problem behavior is fully present and now requires staff to handle the behavior safely through an individualized, careful deescalating of the behavior. This might include specific techniques, calming words, presenting of choices, distraction, and redirection. Each technique will likely be unique to the student. What has worked in the past is important to discuss. Some staff deescalate the student better than others and this should be considered.
Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify reactive strategies across four stages: 3) Problem-solving/Debriefing stage: Debriefing with the student is to review what happened, practice the alternative behavior again, and plan what to do next. 4) Required consequences stage: Clearly written consequences or other team determined actions because of the behavior are important, e.g., school and district disciplinary required actions; calling parents; notifying probation department; attendance at special seminars, detention, and so forth.
Behavior Support and Correction
Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: Howard Knoff, Stop & Think Social Skills Program, 1.Beginning Behavior Stage: Use gestures Billy has been taught that are cues to Billy to use the alternative protest, i.e., call the teacher over to protest hard work. Follow the “Stop and Think” gestural system taught to teachers and students at this school.
Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: 2.Mid-behavior Stage: Increase proximity to Billy, point to the work on the floor, get on eye level, use calm voice requiring work to be replaced on desk, wait patiently for compliance and praise in accordance with the teacher training on “the reinforcement sandwich.” If Billy is too agitated to work, invite him to take a “Time Away” in a specified classroom area. Praise his return when he is ready to work. (see for Time Away article)
Correction Strategies Reinforcement Sandwich Reinforcement Sandwich ► Reinforce earlier behavior ► State inappropriate behavior with calm voice (“Just now, you…”) ► State appropriate behavior with a dangling sentence Require response Require performance ► Reinforce compliance Building Instructional Control
Correction Strategies Time Away (see for Time Away article)www.pent.ca.gov
Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: 3.Debriefing Stage: Ask Billy why he chose the old form of protest rather than his new alternative. Have Billy help fill out the daily report card communicating the poor choice he made and what Billy and the teacher will do next time to help assure the new behavior to protest is selected.
Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s Daily Report Card
Example of reactive strategies: Billy Billy’s Behavior Support Plan includes the four stages of reactive strategies as follows: 4.Consequences Stage: If the behavior escalates to loud swearing, Billy will be sent to the counselor to complete a written process, “My Inappropriate Behavior,” which may or may not result in a suspension or other school disciplinary procedures given by the Vice Principal for the disruptive behavior. See: for “My inappropriate behavior” formwww.pent.ca.gov
Example of reactive strategies: Billy’s “My Inappropriate Behavior” (see for form)www.pent.ca.gov
5. Positive Behavioral Support Principle: On-going communication needs to be between all important stakeholders in the student’s life. Key Concept: The behavior plan must specify who communicates with whom, how frequently about what, and in what manner. Two-way communication between message senders and recipients is important.
Requirement: The communication needs to be frequently enough to result in the continuous teaming necessary to achieve success. Method: Communication ideas: sent home in writing, through messages on or voice mail, through posting on a teacher’s answering machine in school (if information can be communicated in codes to assure confidentiality) or face-to-face.
Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 1.Communication between: parents, teacher, school counselor, therapist from Department of Mental Health, school principal
Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 2.Frequency: a.Daily: Report card on use of replacement behavior will be sent home; parents report back on praise or other reinforcers for accomplishment they gave Billy each day. b.Weekly: Teacher will send weekly summary of Billy’s behavior to principal, school counselor, parents and therapist through
Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 2.Frequency: c.Per Incident: Episodes of protest that include throwing furniture or loud swearing will be reported to the school counselor, who will debrief and send “My Inappropriate Behavior” analysis sheet to the principal, therapist, family, teacher. Therapist and parents will communicate any discussions with Billy about the incident which have yielded important insights about future interventions to counselor, who will inform others as needed.
Example of Communication between important stakeholders: Billy’s team decided on the following communication provisions: 3.Manner: a.Daily: written report hand carried by Billy to parents b.Weekly: summaries using a report chart c.Per Incident: paper copy to principal, teacher. scanned copy to therapist, family
Research on Plans
How can we know when our plans are well- written? PENT Research Team ► ► Diana Browning Wright-PENT Director ► ► Dr. G. Roy Mayer PENT Leader/Collaborator-CSULA Professor ► ► Dr. Bonnie Rawlings Kraemer-SDSU Moderate/Severe Assistant Professor ► ► Dr. Bruce Gale PENT Leader/Technology Advisor, Private Practice ► ► S. Dean Crews PENT Researcher-UCR Grad Student ► ► Clayton Cook PENT Researcher and Leader-UCR Grad Student ► ► 150 Master’s candidates, CSULA “research associates” See research:
What does the BSP QE measure? n Extent to which this plan reflects a team developed plan in alignment with principles of behavioral change from the field of applied behavior analysis n Those are the behavior change principles we just reviewed !
What the QE does NOT measure
► Whether the new behaviors, interventions, environmental changes, and reinforcers fit the student ► Whether this plan is developmentally appropriate for this student
Who is this student? ► Current developmental stage ► Skill mastery levels ► Personality, temperament, and other unique characteristics ► Team members must know the student well to develop an effective plan
What the QE does NOT measure ► Whether the hypothesized function is correct
What the QE does NOT measure ► Whether the plan was or will be implemented consistently and skillfully
The BSP QE Analysis Areas _____ A.Problem Behavior _____ B.Predictors of Behavior _____ C.Analyzing What is Supporting Problem Behavior _____ D.Environmental Changes _____ E.Predictors Related to Function _____ F.Function Related to Replacement Behaviors _____ G.Teaching Strategies _____H. Reinforcement _____ I. Reactive Strategies _____ J. Goals and Objectives _____ K.Team Coordination _____L.Communication _____Total Score (X /24)
Fundamental Problem ► Writing a “ gold standard ” goal in the era of high accountability and progress monitoring ► 6 Key Components for Scoring A Complete Goal (can be in any order) By when Who Will do what? (must be measurable, “ camera ready ” description) “ camera ready ” description) Under what conditions? At what level of proficiency? As measured by whom and how?
Example Goals: Are these complete? ► 1. Mike will stop fighting on the playground playground ► 2. By Mike will use appropriate behaviors on the playground behaviors on the playground
Goals Structure ► SIX component structure: general positive or decrease problem goals positive or decrease problem goals 1. By when, 2. who, 3. will do what, 4. under what conditions, 5. at what level of proficiency, 6. as measure by whom and how
What about Functionally equivalent replacement behavior goals? ► Commonly misunderstood concept ► Can be written with a six component format ► High level of errors likely in six format for FERB ► Use a 9 format alternative corrects for errors
Goals Structure ► 9 component: functionally equivalent replacement behavior 1. By when, 1. By when, 2. instead of X behavior 2. instead of X behavior 3. to achieve Y purpose, 3. to achieve Y purpose, 4. Who 4. Who 5. will do what Z behavior 5. will do what Z behavior 6. To achieve Y purpose (repeated), 6. To achieve Y purpose (repeated), 7. under what conditions, 7. under what conditions, 8. at what level of proficiency, 8. at what level of proficiency, 9. as measured by whom and how 9. as measured by whom and how This structure corrects for common error: writing a replacement behavior that really is student Just doing what we want
Is this a FERB? ► By 1/06, Mary, instead of sitting with her head down, refusing to do seatwork, for the purpose of protesting hard work, will do her seatwork quietly, for all subject areas and assignments, at 80% proficiency as scored by teacher and recorded in record book. NO ! It is simply a general positive behavior we want! NO ! It is simply a general positive behavior we want!
Is this a FERB? ► By 1/06, instead of refusing to do her seatwork, for the purpose of protesting hard work, Mary will verbally tell the teacher it is too difficult, for the purpose of protesting hard work. She will conditionally use this alternative for all subject areas and assignments she finds hard, using all steps in the verbal script taught and reinforced by the teacher (see IEP attachment for 4 steps) as observed by the teacher and recorded in the behavioral notebook on a daily basis.
Question One: How well is the field developing behavior plans in California? Superior Underdeveloped Weak Typical Team study: 11% adequacy Good
Question Two: Can we increase plan quality through training on key concepts? Slide prepared by Clay Cook, Dean Crews, Diana Browning Wright, 3/05 Underdeveloped 28% Weak 30% Superior 6% Good 36% Pre-Summit Plans All accepted CADRE were required to attend training “One Page Behavior Plans That Work.” that covered key concepts 42% adequate 58% inadequate Key concepts training, Without BSP-QE training
Question Three: Now that we have a scoring rubric, can we increase plan quality through training on this quantitative tool? Slide prepared by Clay Cook, Dean Crews, Diana Browning Wright, 3/05 PENT Cadre training on BSP-QE 2003 VS Training on the 6 key concepts without BSP-QE Component (Typical training done on behavior plans)
Training on BSP-QE Improves Plan Quality PENT Inadequate 58% Adequate 42% SUMMITBSP-QE Pre-Summit Plans Adequate 65% Inadequate 35% Post-Summit Plans χ 2 = 11.41*** ODDS RATIO = 2.1 These changes are statistically significant!
Comparison of plan quality with no training, Six key concepts training, and training on BSP-QE 11% Adequate 89% Inadequat e No Training 6 Concepts Training 42% Adequate 58% Inadequat e 35% Inadequate 65% Adequate BSP-QE Training
Implications: What have we learned? ► Training on the six-key concepts is better than NO training at all. ► However, if we hope to produce the best plans possible, we need to train more specifically in the exact components of a legally defensible and educationally meaningful behavior support plan. Training using the BSP-QE is a means to this end.
Should all behavior plans be based on function? ► If the student responds to common classroom supports, no individual plan is needed ► If the student responds to simple contingency contracts, no individual plan is needed ► For challenging behavior, understanding the purpose served by the behavior is ESSENTIAL if we are to support change
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success