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Review Instrument Final

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1 Review Instrument Final

2 Instrument Currency “To act as PIC of an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, one must have logged (within the preceding 6 months): 6 approaches holding intercepting and tracking navigation courses or passed an IPC

3 Spatial Disorientation
Conflict between the signals relayed by your central vision and information provided by your central vision Movement of snow or rain out the window Airplane next to you begins to taxi

4 Hypoxia Hypoxic high altitudes Hypemic Stagnant Histotoxic
CO, anemia, smoking Stagnant high G’s Histotoxic alcohol, drugs

5 Slip and Skid Slip - rate of turn is too slow for the bank and the ball moves to the inside of the turn Skid - rate of turn is too great for the angle of bank and the ball moves to the outside of the turn

6 Magnetic Compass Errors
Variation - the angular difference between the true and magnetic pole Deviation - errors due to magnetic interference with the metal components of the aircraft Magnetic dip - the compass tries to point down deep inside the earth

7 ISA International Standard Atmospheric Sea Level - 150 C - 29.92 in HG
Before IFR flight the altimeter set to the current altimeter setting should be within 75 feet of the actual elevation

8 Fundamental Skills Cross Check Instrument Interpretation
Aircraft Control

9 Instrument Failure Any instrument may fail separately
In addition, any system may fail. Vacuum system failure Electrical system failure Pitot system failure Static system failure

10 Ground Facilities - VOR
Operate in MHz Band Standard Service Volumes (SSV) High Altitude(HVOR) watts, up to 130 nm, used for airways Low Altitude(LVOR) - about 100 watts, up to 40 nm, used for airways Terminal(TVOR) - 50 watts, 25 nm, used for approaches

11 VOR Receiver Checks VOT VOR Ground Checkpoint VOR Airborne Checkpoint
180’ TO, 360’ FROM; +/- 4’ VOR Ground Checkpoint Indicated radial; +/- 4’ VOR Airborne Checkpoint Indicated radial; +/- 6’ Centerline of airway; +/- 6 Dual VOR Check Within 4’

Interrogation and response rate * time = distance Uses slant distance - 1 NM away for each 1000’ elevation





17 Pilot Responsibilities
See and Avoid IFR Climb Considerations Optimum until 1000 feet of assigned altitude 500 to 1500 feet per minute for last 1000 feet

18 Pilot Responsibilities
Adhere to a clearance Emergency Violate an FAR Responding to a traffic alert and collision avoidance system resolution advisory (TCAS RA)

19 Elements of an IFR Clearance
Aircraft identification Clearance limit Departure procedures Route of flight Altitudes or flight levels Cruise clearance

20 Abbreviated IFR Clearance
Cleared as file Clearance limit or destination airport SID name, number and transition Altitude and additional instructions frequency and transponder code

21 Readback Initial enroute clearance in entirety Subsequently
Altitude Assignments Radar Vectors any instruction requiring verification ATC clears, ATC advises, ATC requests

22 Tower Enroute Clearance
Short, low altitude routes between terminal areas Published in Airport/Facilities Manual Generally below 10,000 feet, less than 2 hours in nonturbojet aircraft

23 IFR Departure Procedures
Standard 200’/nm climb gradient 35’ at end of runway 400’ HAA before turning Nonstandard Avoidance by climb or heading denoted by T on IAP description in front of IAPs

24 Rate of Climb Table Climb Rate Ft. per NM Ground Speed

Anytime Leaving altitude Leaving any assigned holding fix Missed approach <500 fpm climb/decent TAS varies>5% or 10 kts Time & altitude reaching a holding fix Loss of Nav/Comm(Equip) Unforecast weather

At required reporting points I D P osition T ime E levation E TA next N ext next

Example KC center KS81 Salina 1530 FL300 HYS 1545 Lamar next

28 Holding Pattern Race track shaped pattern
1 Min Inbound legs <14000’ MSL 1 1/2 min > 14000’ MSL Standard holding pattern is right turns At Nav facility, intersection, or Radial/DME

29 Departure and Arrival Charts
DPs, STARs and visual approaches are routinely assigned by ATC DPs and STARs are issued to simplify clearance delivery procedures. Use “No DP” or “No STAR” in remarks, if you do not want to use them

30 Departure and Arrival Charts
To accept a DP you must at least have the textual description Use the rate of climb table in Legend 18 to convert a specified minimum rate of climb per NM to convert the climb rate into feet per minute

31 Reduce Workload Simple, easy to understand, one page
Accommodate many types of aircraft Use VORTACs Avoid DME arcs Altitude crossing and airspeed restrictions included if normally used

32 Enroute MRA( Minimum Reception Altitude) is the lowest altitude at which an intersection can be determined MOCA(Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude) assure acceptable navigation signal coverage only within 22 NM of VOR

33 Enroute MEA( Minimum en route altitude) is the lowest published altitude between radio fixes which assures acceptable navigational coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements

34 Enroute MCA(Minimum Crossing Altitude) is the lowest altitude at a fix at which an aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher MEA

35 Enroute Obstruction clearance in nonmountainous areas is guaranteed for the MOCA and all minimum IFR altitudes providing at least 1,000 ft of vertical distance from the highest obstruction 4 NM either side of the center of the airway

36 VFR-ON-TOP VFR-on-top can be conducted only after a pilot has received a VFR-on-top clearance A pilot must request a VFR-on-top clearance Must comply with the VFR altitudes

37 VFR-ON-TOP Both IFR and VFR rules apply Prohibited in Class A airspace
A clearance “to VFR-on-top” is to fly through cloud layers to VFR conditions on top

38 Reports Advise ATC when your airspeed changes by 5% or 10 knots whichever is greater On a direct routes, the fixes defining the routes become compulsory reporting points

39 Reports When not in RADAR contact on a non-precision approach, report to ATC any time you leave a final approach fix inbound on the final approach

40 Holding Turns are made to the right in a standard holding pattern, and to the left in a non-standard holding pattern The entry procedure for a holding pattern depends on your heading relative to the holding course

41 Holding Patterns

42 Approach Categories Computed as 1.3 VSO A - Up to 90 knots
B - 91 to 120 C to 140 D to 165 E - above 165

43 Approach Charts The letters IAF indicate the location of an initial approach fix The procedure title indicates the type of approach system used and the equipment required to fly the approach

44 Approach Charts MSA( Minimum Safe Altitude) provides 1,000 ft of obstruction clearance usually within 25 NM Neither navigation nor communication coverage is guaranteed

45 Approach Charts Absence of a procedure turn or holding pattern indicates a course reversal is not authorized TDZE(Touchdown zone elevation) is the highest elevation in the first 3,000 ft of the landing surface

46 Approach Charts TCH(Threshold crossing height) is the altitude at which you cross the runway threshold when established on the glide slope centerline The procedure turn must be completed within the prescribed distance from the facility

47 Approach Charts The precision approach FAF is located at the minimum glide slope intercept point When on the glide slope during a precision approach, the missed approach point is the decision height

48 Approach Charts When the glide slope becomes inoperative during an ILS procedure, localizer minimums are used Substitution for certain ILS components, when the component is inoperative are permitted

49 Approach Charts If your groundspeed decreases, the rate of descent required to stay on glide slope must also decrease Localizer and glide slope indications become more sensitive as you get closer to the runway

50 Approach Procedures An LDA approach is comparable to a localizer, but is not aligned with the runway An SDF may offer less accuracy than an LDA approach

51 Contact Approach Must be requested by the pilot, the visibility must be at least one mile, allows the pilot to deviate from an instrument approach procedure and proceed to the destination airport by visual reference to the surface

52 Weather Factors Highs are usually associated with Good visibility
Light winds Few clouds Good weather Characterized by descending air

53 Weather Factors Lows are usually associated with precipitation
cloudiness poor visibility bad weather turbulence Wind characterized by rising air Example of lows are hurricanes and tornadoes

54 Weather Factors Air tries to flow from high to low
At higher altitudes, Coriolis force makes the wind flow parallel with isobars At lower altitudes, surface friction weakens Coriolis force and flows across the isobars This airflow is wind

55 Weather Factors In the northern hemisphere
Air flows counterclockwise around a low (cyclonic) Air flows clockwise around a high (anticyclonic) If one were to fly directly to the center of a low, the winds would come from the left and get stronger as one got closer

56 Weather Factors Relative Humidity
Measure of how much moisture is present for a a parcel of air at a temperature. If a parcel of air has a RH of 100%, it is saturated. The temperature that it is at is called the dewpoint. If this parcel were cooled more, water vapor would clouds, fog, dew or frost

57 Thunderstorms Conditions Stages Unstable air Lifting action
High moisture content Stages Cumulus stage Mature stage Dissipating stage

58 Hazards Embedded thunderstorms may be obscured by cloud layers
Wind shear can be found on all sides as well as directly under it Greatest intensity during mature stage, which is signaled by precipitation at the surface

59 Types of Thunderstorms
Airmass thunderstorms are usually isolated or scattered over a large area Frontal thunderstorms associated with frontal activity Squall line is a narrow band of active thunderstorms normally containing severe weather

60 Wake Turbulence Wingtip vortices occurs when an airplane generates lift They can exceed the roll rate of an aircraft Greatest when an aircraft is heavy, slow and clean

61 Clear Air Turbulence Turbulence above 15,000 feet AGL not associated with cumuliform cloudiness is reported as CAT CAT is common in a upper trough on the polar side of the jet stream

62 Mountain Wave Turbulence
Greatest turbulence occurs approaching the lee side of a mountain range in strong headwinds Standing lenticular and rotor clouds indicate the possibility of strong turbulence

63 Microbursts Intense, localized downdrafts seldom lasting longer than 15 minutes Downdrafts can be as strong as 6,000 feet per minute Performance changes drastically as an aircraft flies through a microburst

64 Fog Radiation Fog - ground fog - forms over fairly flat land on clear, calm nights Advection fog- forms near coastal areas when moist air moves over colder ground or water

65 Fog Upslope fog forms when moist stable air is forced up a sloping land mass Steam fog occurs as cool air moves over warmer water Precipitation-induced fog forms when warm rain falls through a layer of cooler air near the surface

66 TAF Terminal Aerodrome Forecast - valid for a 24 hour period and scheduled four times a day Primary source of destination weather AMD means and amended forecast COR means a corrected forecast RTD indicates a delayed forecast

67 Area Forecast FA Issued three times a day and include a forecast period of 18 hours We are in the Chicago region Consists of four sections Heading Precautionary statements Synopsis VFR Clouds and Weather

68 Wind and Temperature Aloft
Uses a four digit code for wind speed and direction, the first two digits are the wind direction in hundreds of degrees The second two digits indicate wind speed A two digit temperature code in degrees Celsius follows the wind speed and direction code All temperature above 24,000 feet are negative

69 Types of Briefings Standard is the most complete briefing and assumes no familiarity with the weather picture Abbreviated is used to update weather information when you need only one or two specific items Outlook is used if you departure is six or more hours away. You should update with a standard or abbreviated briefing closer to flight time

70 In-Flight Weather Sources
Airmets - WA - Airmans meteorological information are forecasts for a maximum of a six hour period Sierra for IFR conditions Tango for turbulence Zulu for icing and freezing levels

71 SIGMETs Significant meteorological information - WS - Severe Icing
Severe and extreme turbulence Volcanic eruptions Duststorms, sandstorms or volcanic ash lowering visibility to less than three miles

72 Convective SIGMETs Imply severe or greater turbulence, severe icing and low level wind shear Contain either an observation and a forecast or just a forecast for tornadoes, significant thunderstorm activity or hail 3/4 inch or greater in diameter

73 Center Weather Advisory CWA
Issued by ARTCC to alert pilots of existing or anticipated adverse weather conditions May be issued prior to an AIRMET or SIGMET as a result of PIREPs

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