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BeReEm Semantic value vs. grammaticalization of prefixes in the construal of myśleć ‘think’ in Polish by Iwona Kokorniak and Malgorzata Fabiszak.

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Presentation on theme: "BeReEm Semantic value vs. grammaticalization of prefixes in the construal of myśleć ‘think’ in Polish by Iwona Kokorniak and Malgorzata Fabiszak."— Presentation transcript:

1 BeReEm Semantic value vs. grammaticalization of prefixes in the construal of myśleć ‘think’ in Polish by Iwona Kokorniak and Malgorzata Fabiszak

2 Overview Aspect in Slavic Grammatic(al)ization Prefix semantics Aspectual pairs Meaning analysis of Perfective prefixed forms of myśleć Prototypical structure of prefixed forms of myśleć Aspectual continuum Questions for further research

3 Aspect in Slavic Comrie, B. (1976: 89-90) Slavic prefixes were first semantically ‘heavy’, later developed their Aspectual function of Perfectivity po- in Russian the most neutral semantically (often forms strict aspectual pairs): myśleć - pomyśleć semantically non-empty prefixes > development of aspectual pairs through suffixal derivation of Imperfective forms: myśleć > wymyśleć > wymyślać

4 The meaning of Aspect: structural approaches IMPERFECTIVEDURATIONSørensen 1949, Meillett 1924 IMPERFECTIVEPROCESSKuhnert 1984, Cockiewicz 1992 PERFECTIVEEND OR BEGINING AND END OF AN ACTION Sørensen 1949, Vondrak 1929, Gaertner 1938, Klemensiewicz 1960, Milewski 1976 PERFECTIVEEXHAUSTIVEKlemensiewicz et al 1964 IMPERFECTIVE/PERF ECTIVE DURATIVE:PUNCTUA L Christman 1959 PERFECTIVECOMPLETNESS OF AN ACTION De Saussure, Bondarko – Bułanin 1967, Śmiech 1971

5 The meaning of Aspect: Langacker (2001) Bounded events: viewed externally, in their entirety, heterogenous (contain sub-events), end-point focus > NON-PROGRESSIVE Unbounded events/states: internal, close-up view on the progression of the event, limited duration > PROGRESSIVE Lasting states: infinite > NON-PROGRESSIVE

6 Aspect in Slavic: A cognitive approach (Janda) PERFECTIVE IS A DISCRETE SOLID IMPERFECTIVE IS A FLUID SUBSTANCE Aspect operates on inherent, discourse and pragmatic level in Slavic > we focus on inherent in this paper po-, pro- (prze-) are Perfective (DISCRETE SOLID) have perdurative and delimitative meanings, focus on punctuality. Janda (2004, 2006) The (perfective) commencement of an activity corresponding to a solid barrier with a substance on one side can alternatively be compressed into a single ingressive za- prefixed verb in East Slavic and Bulgarian. This option is less entrenched in Polish and Serbo-Croatian, and absent or marginal and at any rate non-productive in Czech, Slovak, and Sorbian (Dickey 2000: 222-233).

7 The meaning of Aspect in Slavic (Dickey 2000) ‘east-west aspect theory’ ‘totality’ – central semantic category of the western perfective (Czech, Slovak, Sorbian, Slovene) ‘temporal definitness’ – central semantic category of the eastern perfective (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian) a temporally definite event “is viewed as both (a) complete whole and (b) qualitatively different from preceding and subsequent states of affairs” (Dickey and Hutcheson 2003: 27- 28). Transitional zone – Serbo-Croatian and Polish, where the perfective aspect is “a radial or polysemous category with a secondary, local prototype” (Dickey 2000: 39) Polish closer to the eastern group

8 Grammatic(al)ization Grammaticalization - “the attribution of a grammatical character to a previously autonomous word” (Meillet 1912: 131, as quoted in Hopper 1991: 17) The resultant forms are “grammatical”, i.e. part of “grammar” (Hopper 1991: 34 fn. 2) Instances of grammatici(al)zation: Categories which are morphologized might safely be said to be part of grammar Aspect, number, tense and case, among others, occur frequently across languages as affixal morphology Grammatici(al)zation is a question of degree

9 Prefix semantics do– indicates an approximation to a goal or result; some effort; reaching the goal may involve encountering certain difficulties along the way, where the trajector (TR) makes every effort to achieve the goal despite any obstacles; na– indicates an intensity of an action; expresses a cumulative process ob– the image schema involved here refers to a circular motion of TR around LM po– forms delimitative verbs to indicate (i) a short duration of an action; (ii) a limited nature of an action; does not involve the attainment of any obvious goal (atelic) prze– may depict a three dimensional and bounded LM, such as a tunnel in which the TR moves from one end to the other, where the TR “gradually fills the whole volume of the landmark” (Pasich-Piasecka 1993: 19)

10 Prefix semantics roz– in its basic image schema represents the TR and landmark LM constituting one entity before a change and taking different forms afterwards. Thus, the comparison of the two states of the entity before and after the change profiles different senses of roz-. u– in one of its image schemas the LM is construed as s a collection of entities among which the selected TR is located; thus, the TR constitutes part of the LM wy– construal of the TR’s emergence from the LM, or its coming into existence by leaving the bounded region of the LM; the container image schema evoked za– can represent a construal of ‘excess’ with intransitive perfective verbs, being extended from the sense of ‘going beyond a boundary’ z– implies following a path and then veering off in another direction (Dickey 2006, 2009, p.c.; Przybylska 2001, 2006; Piernikarski 1975; Śmiech 1986; Tabakowska 2003)

11 Aspectual pairs Within a network of verbs expressing a single lexical meaning, Langacker (1999: 103), views aspectual pairhood as a categorizing relationship between a pair of imperfective and perfective verbs that has a high degree of entrenchment and ease of activation Myśleć ‘think’– polysemous; depending on the context, certain construals will be sanctioned and in each case a different ‘pair of’ verbs, which are mutually linked by an entrenched categorizing relationship, is activated

12 Aspectual pairs of myśleć by Cockiewicz (1992: 183) myśleć : pomysleć; myśleć : namyśleć się domyślić się : domyślać się; obmyślić : obmyślać; namyślić się : namyślać się; przemyśleć; wymyślić : wymyślać; zamyślić : zamyślać; zmyślić : zmyślać; rozmyślić : rozmyślać

13 Prefix/Aspect frequencies; PWN Corpus Ja to uzupełnię PrefixImperfPerfTotal do-542350892 na-593291 ob-4447101 po-0998 prze-28225253 roz-18064244 u-026 wy-26910571326 za-31185 z-332558

14 The meaning of Perfective prefixed forms of myśleć domyślić się – focus on the end point and result; intensive- resultative verb (Dickey 2009) namyślić się – focus on cumulative nature process, and goal attainement obmyślić – the mental process has a circular nature, which means that the object of thinking is considered from many different perspectives pomyśleć – beginning of an action but no end or result, focus on process; A prefix overlaps with the meaning of a source verb enough to produce a compound verb whose meaning is identical to that of the impf source verb save for aspect (Dickey 2006: 12) przemyśleć – implies the in-depth nature of the mental activity; also points at its completeness and duration

15 The meaning of Perfective prefixed forms of myśleć ctnd. rozmyślić się – an observed change in the subject’s mental state - between the ‘normal’ process of the mental activity represented by the unprefixed form into the ‘changed’ mental state represented by the prefixed one; the reflexive pronoun emphasizes the internal mental change of the subject, which may also bring about a change in the subject’s behaviour frequently conceived of by observers as a negative one (Przybylska 2001: 279-280) umyślić coś - the mental process involves selection of one entity from a collection; the subject of the process thus focuses his/her attention on the selected entity, with the mental activity not being entirely conscious and goal-oriented wymyślić – refers to a mental activity as a result of which one or more ideas emerge from one’s mind; completeness of the process, which is conscious and goal-oriented; punctual in nature zamyślić się – an absorbtive verb, as it construes a continuous process whose subject, by becoming deeply engrossed in the activity, loses control over it; the mental activity occurs independently of the subject’s will, some adverse consequences may be expected (Dickey p.c.) zmyślić - the subject involved in the mental activity suddenly strays from the normal train of thought and produces an unexpected idea (deviant result – a false proposition)

16 Prototypical structure of prefixed myśleć, Perfective

17 Aspect continuum

18 Aspectual pairs with myśleć: myśleć:pomyśleć, myśleć:przemyśleć, myśleć:wymyśleć, myśleć:domyśleć się Aspectual pairs with suffixal derivation: przemyśleć:przemyśliwać; wymyślić:wymyślać; domyślić:domyślać; namyślić się:namyślać; obmyślić:obmyślać; zamyślić się:zamyślać się; Divergence of aspectual pairs (Hopper 1991): rozmyślić się [change mind]; umyślić [decide]; wymyślać komuś [abuse]; zmyślić:zmyślać [think up]

19 Questions for further research Aspect and negation (cf. Bogusławski 2003) Aspect and modality Aspect and Direct Object (Langacker 2003) Operationalization of Janda’s (2004) metaphor

20 References Bogusławski, Andrzej. 2003. Aspekt i negacja. Warszawa: Instytut Lingwistyki Stosowanej UW. Bondarko, A. 1975. „O vidach russkogo glagola”. In: Russkij jazyk za rubezom 5/6. Cockiewicz, Wacław. 1992. Aspekt na tle systemu słowotwórczego polskiego czasownika... Kraków: UJ. Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Aspect. CUP. Dickey, Stephen M. 2000. Parameters of Slavic aspect: A cognitive approach. Stanford: CSLI. Dickey, Stephen M. 2009. Subjectification and the East-West aspect division. (Paper presented at the 9th Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Conference, 16th Oct. 2009.). Dickey, Stephen M. (personal communication). Subjectification and the Russian perfective. Dickey, Stephen M. and Julie Hutcheson. 2003. “Delimitative verbs in Russian, Czech and Slavic”, in: Robert A. Maguire and Alan Timberlake (eds.), American contributions to the Thirteenth International Congress of Slavists. Columbus: Ohio Slavica, 23-36. ( cheson%20Delimitatives.pdf) (date of access: 9th Nov. 2009) cheson%20Delimitatives.pdf

21 References Hopper, Paul. 1991. “On some principles of grammaticalization”, in: Paul Hopper and Elizabeth C. Traugott (eds.). Grammaticalization. Vols. 2. Cambridge: CUP, 17-35. Janda, Laura. 2004. “A Metaphor for Aspect in Slavic”. Cognitive Linguistics 15/4: 471-427. Langacker, Ronald. 1991. Foundations of cognitive grammar: Descriptive application. Vol. 2. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Langacker, Ronald. 1999. Grammar and conceptualization. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Przybylska, Renata. 2001. “Struktura schematyczno-wyobrażeniowa prefiksu czasownikowego roz-“ [Image-schematic structure of the verbal prefix ‘roz-’] Polonica 21: 269-286. Przybylska, Renata. 2006. Schematy wyobrażeniowe a semantyka polskich prefiksów czasownikowych do-, od-, prze-, roz-, u-. [Image schemata and semantics of Polish verb prefixes do-, od-, prze-, roz-, u-]. Kraków: Universitas. Radden, Günter and René Dirven. 2007. Cognitive English grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

22 Thank you for your attention

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