Presentation on theme: "By Rachel Wilsey Chapter One: Latin America Chapter Two: Sub-Saharan Africa Chapter Three: Middle East Chapter Four: Europe Chapter Five: Asia Chapter."— Presentation transcript:
The Amazon Rainforest, home to many natural wonders... Is quickly disappearing.
When the forest is cut, the area surrounding the cut loses moisture. This area of the the forest dies quickly. Click mouse to move on
Most of the deforestation is done through slash and burn techniques. Sometimes the smoke from these fires is so thick that schools have to be closed and flights have to be delayed or canceled. Click mouse to move on
Tribal life is disappearing. The peoples and cultures of the amazon are being wiped out or assimilated. It is not uncommon for ranchers to terrorize, kill and force the removal of Indians. Once they have done so, they bulldoze the land to erase the evidence of the Indian's presence. This pattern of genocide has yet to be investigated by the police, although the government grants “equal protection” to indigenous peoples under the constitution. Click mouse to move on
Women, the last hope for the Ecuadorian Amazon? The Atlantic Richfield Oil Co. has begun construction of a pipeline through the Panshpanshu Biological reserve in Ecuador. If this project is allowed to continue, it will destroy the ecosystem and end the natural way of life for the Shuar and Quichua peoples. They will be forced to either live on the petroleum contaminated, clear cut “dead zones” or migrate to the city. While the men of these indigenous communities fall into the trap of corporate deceit, the women demand that their voices be heard. They organized the First Congress of Women of the Amazon in 1996. They continue to provide bi-cultural and bi-lingual education for their children. These remarkable women have even created a Natural Indigenous University where foreign students are able to experience natural living and health restoration traditions. Click mouse to move on
One half the species on earth live in the rainforest, and they too are loosing their homes. If nothing is done to prevent it, By the year 2035, all the tropical rainforests in the world will be gone. Click mouse to move on
Action alert Radar map of the amazon To see more, click on an icon. Letter home «—» Distance Master Travelouge HiHi Currency and other souvenirs BibliographyBack to table of contents
Dear Mother Earth, I am currently in Brazil visiting your amazing Amazon rainforest. It is so shocking to learn what is going on here. So much of the forest is gone, it has been cut down for its natural resources; for the tropical hardwood, oil, gas, uranium, gold, iron, diamonds and for farming. It’s amazing to think Brazil has more remaining rainforest then any other country, when I see so much being destroyed. They tell me that if the current rate of deforestation continues, there will be no tropical rainforests left in the world in a mere 35 years. What will we do when the “lungs of the earth” are gone? You give us natural wonders to sustain our life, and we destroy them. It angers me that people slash and burn to clear the land for agriculture. Farming in the Amazon is not even efficient. Once the land has been cleared, it can sustain intense farming for two to three years. After that, soil erosion renders the fields unusable. Think of all the different species of plants and animals that will become extinct. And what about all the indigenous people, they are having their way of life ripped out from under them. They are faced with an ultimatum, abandon their homes and way fo life to move to the city or die. It saddens me to see us throw away such a wealth of life and culture. Today’s society allows affluent, “civilized” people to determine the fate of the indigenous peoples. No human being on this earth has the right to hold the welfare and life of another human in their hands. Being here has made me more aware of the problem. But it has also made me more aware of the solution. This is not a problem of the distant future, something for my children’s, children to deal with. Now is the time for action to prevent any further destruction. There are many things that an individual can do, such as write letters and petition the government. To see some current issues and find out what you can do to help,see the action alert page. Love your daughter, Rachel Wilsey Back to link page
This space radar image of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows the rapidly changing and use. The pink areas are pristine tropical rainforest. The blue and green areas have been cleared for agriculture. Back to link page
Distance between Denver, Colorado, United States and Natal, Brazil, as the crow flies: 5361 miles (8628 km) (4659 nautical miles) Initial heading from Denver to Natal: east-southeast (107.6 degrees) Initial heading from Natal to Denver: northwest (312.5 degrees) Back to link page
Area Visiting Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East Europe Asia Australia/ New Zealand North America City Chosen long/lat Miles traveled Cum. Days Traveled Cum. Present Bank Balance Cost of Travel (Subtract) Salary Earned (Add) Bonus Drawn (Add) New Balance 53611 Natal 00
Area Visiting Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East Europe Asia Australia/ New Zealand North America City Chosen long/lat Miles traveled Cum. Days Traveled Cum. Present Bank Balance Cost of Travel (Subtract) Salary Earned (Add) Bonus Drawn (Add) New Balance 53611 Natal, Brazil 00 Khartoum, Sudan 10316 $15
Area Visiting Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East Europe Asia Australia/ New Zealand North America City Chosen long/lat Miles traveled Cum. Days Traveled Cum. Present Bank Balance Cost of Travel (Subtract) Salary Earned (Add) Bonus Drawn (Add) New Balance 53611 Natal, Brazil 00 Khartoum, Sudan 10316 $15 Baghdad, Iraq 1799
10,000 Cruzeiros Picture of Capoeira, a traditional form of dance/martial art Silver butterfly earrings from the Galeria Soho Sergio Mendes and Brasil ‘66 album. Mendes is a renowned Brazilian keyboardist Portuguese: Bom dia (good morning) Spanish: Hola
ABC World Book, http://www.theodora.com Amazon, the green inferno, http://www.barralink.com.br/hbell/amazon.html http://www.barralink.com.br/hball/amazon2.html Anthony’s currency, coins and collectables, http://www.currencyandcoins.com Brazil, http://www.barralink.com.br/hbell/brazil.html http://www.barralink.com.br.hbell/brazil2.html Brazil Online http://www.brazilonline.com/lita/phmen.html Brazil Rainforest, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/radar/sircxsar/radon.html Carnival One, http://members.aol.com/musicco/CARNIVAL/HTM Icon Bazaar, http://www.iconbazzar.com Lonely Planet, http://www.lonelyplanet.com.au/dest.sam/graphics/map-bra.htm Native Web, http://abyayala.nativeweb.org/cultures/equador/amazon/women.html http://abayala/nativeweb.org/cultures/brazil/xavante.html Tropical American Tree Farms, http://tropicaltrees.co.cr/htm/main/tropical_rainforests.htm Back to link page
“Look at us, you can see with your own eyes we are hungry. As you can see we are now eating leaves. The leaves are not sweet, it is just food in your stomach so that you can hold on. You feel as if you are eating.”
Independence for the south Natural resources National religion and government The Sudanese government is fighting the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, the SPLA is fighting the government as well as itself... They are both attacking the civilians.
The South was originally added onto the northern part of Sudan by the British. Culturally it is completely different. The south is black African, mainly Christian and animist while the north is Arab and Muslim. There are about eight million southerners - near half a million have died in the fighting and the famine that has resulted from the civil war. The main southern rebel group is the Sudan People's Liberation Army led by John Garang. But the politics of the area are extremely complicated and there are other small rebel groups. Some of the rebels say they would settle for autonomy within the existing borders of Sudan. As the fighting rages on, more have been leaning toward their own separate state. It is highly unlikely that the Khartoum government will ever agree to this.
Military strategy has been to gain advantage by killing non combatants, looting and destroying their means of livelihood, and driving them off their land. This has lead to ethnic cleansing and mass famine.
Nubans are a people that the Sudanese government has seen as a threat to its Islamic fundamentalist ideology because of its culture and traditions. Nubans (not to be confused with Nubians who live in northern Sudan and southern Egypt) often wear no clothes, freely mix between men and women and find organized religion to be not very significant. The Nuba Mountain region is being “cleansed” by ethnic Arab militias armed by the Sudanese government. There have been wholesale population movements and massacres by the Baggara tribe of Arab herdsmen.
The civil war along with two years of crop failure due to drought, has created a massive famine in Sudan. Six months ago the World Food Program estimated that 350,000 people were at risk of starving, now the figure is up to 2.6 million. Unicef estimates that in the south over 50% of children are malnourished. Most Sudanese children weigh less then one half of what they should for their height. The military strategy of attacking non-combatants has made the situation even worse, and this isn’t the first time either. The military has caused 3 such famines in the last decade More then 3 million people have been internally displaced. These internal refugees flee to areas where food is already scarce, adding pressure to already dwindling resources. "There's only one other time--in Somalia-- that I've seen grown men, barely skeletons, in this kind of shape." Bob LaParde, veteran aid worker with CARE.
The picture perfectly captures the fact that any modern famine is manmade, with the haves literally stealing from the have-nots. --Joe Otterbein Theft of life. A man steals a bag of maize from a malnourished, starving child outside a United Nations feeding center in Ajiep, southern Sudan. He is well dressed and rich by Sudanese standards. Government and rebel troops also steal humanitarian aid–but in a more systematic way.
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Dear Mom, I am currently visiting Sudan. It is absolutely amazing!! The country side in Sudan is full of fertile soil, yet it idles bearing no crops for its starving people. The rich are well fed, while the poor are living skeletons. The haves steal from the have-nots. The famine in Sudan is completely man made. The government and the SPLA have declared war against each other, but in all actuality, they are fighting the civilians. This is what angers me the most, it is not as if the Sudanese people are starving because there has been a drought or because the land can’t sustain agriculture. They are starving because the government chooses for them to starve. You would be horrified to hear of what I saw during my stay in Khartoum. The city is surrounded by camps of starving, displaced civilians. In order to get rid of them, the government dropped bombs on the camps, on their own people. Camps like these can be found throughout the country. They are routinely destroyed by the government or attacked by the SPLA. The Inter Government Authority on Development has been meeting to try and solve the conflict. Their efforts have been fruitless. The last meeting to take steps towards a referendum for self determination in the south was halted because the parties couldn’t even agree on what constitutes the south. International food aid continues to be sent to Sudan. A large portion is skimmed off the top by the government while some reaches the starving people. Unfortunately some of the food is stolen by the rich, from the hands of the poor before they can get it home. Clearly, sending more food aid will not solve the problem in Sudan. In order to stop the wave of famine, the human rights issues that lie at the root of the famine must be addressed. Only when the Sudanese civil war is ended, will the people be able to sustain themselves. Love, Rachel
Distance between Natal, Brazil and Freetown, Sierra Leone, as the crow flies: 1822 miles (2933 km) (1583 nautical miles) Distance between Freetown, Sierra Leone and Khartoum, Sudan, as the crow flies: 3133 miles (5042 km) (2723 nautical miles)
Amnesty International, http://www.amnesty.org Community Aid Abroad, http://www.caa.org.au/world/africa/sudan/dodd.html Icon Bazaar, http://www.iconbazzar.com Medics Sans Frontiers, http://www.msf.org/ssudan/page1.html Mega Stories, http://www.megastories.com/sudan/index.html Rusted Root, Cruel Sun Theodora, http://www.theodora.com/maps/sudan/map.html US News and World Report, http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issues/980914/14sudan.htm World Vision, http://www.worldvision.ca.wvcweb/spcl_rpt.nsf?OpenDatabase&Start=1&Count=30&Expand=0
“War was the only means by which the Bush administration could achieve its secret goals in the Middle East and establish unchangeable control over the vast oil resources of the region. The destruction of Iraq -- not just its mere military power, but its political, social, and economic coherence -- was the clear and constant objective of President Bush’s acts. The United stated had started toward that goal long before the first day of the Bush presidency in January 1989. This was a war of aggression to secure American domination of the Persian Gulf and, through its oil, the world beyond.” -- Ramsey Clark, former Attorney General
“ Our leaders committed war crimes in the Persian Gulf War no less surely than Nazis committed war crimes in World War II”. -- Kurt Vonnegut
In 1958, Abdel Karim Kassem came to power in Iraq. His government formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in order to resist the power of western oil monopolies. The United States would not tolerate this. The CIA formed a “health alterations committee” to plan an invasion of northern Iraq to seize the oil fields and assassinate Kassem. Kassem and thousand of his supporters were massacred in a CIA backed coup. A CIA member joked “The target suffered a terminal illness before a firing squad in Baghdad.”
In 1972 The Baathist Party nationalized a US/British owned petroleum company using the slogan “Arab oil for Arabs”. In answer to this Washington encouraged the Kurdish people to rebel against the Iraqi government. The US supplied them with weapons via the Shah of Iran. In 1975 Iran and the US cut off all support to the Kurds with no concern for their fate. Kissenger stated that “Covert operations should not be confused with missionary work”. “Neither the foreign head of state [the Shah] nor the President and Dr. Kissenger desired a victory for our clients [the Kurds]. They merely hoped to insure the insurgents would be capable of maintaining a level of hostilities high enough to sap the resources of the neighboring state [Iraq].” -- The Pike Report
In 1973 the Pentagon began an Annual training exercise in the Mojave Desert in which Marines and Army Rangers were pitted against soldiers in Iraqi and Libyan uniforms.
After the fall of the Shah in 1979 the US decided to Back Iraq. In 1980 The US provided intelligence reports to Iraq and encouraged them to Invade Iran. Hussein followed our Advice and unleashed a bloody war with Iran in which hundreds of thousands of people died. Washington expressed no moral outrage at this attack on Iran!! Kissenger said, “I hope they kill each other, too bad they both can’t loose”.
After the War with Iran, Saddam wanted to peacefully rebuild his country. The US Army War College predicted that Baghdad would not “deliberately provoke military confrontations with anyone”. But the US needed another conflict in the Middle East to gain control over the regions oil. About this time, Kuwait’s government took a hard-line, belligerent stance toward Iraq when dealing with oil. “If the Americans has not pushed, the royal family would have never taken the steps that it did to provoke Saddam” -- Kuwaiti Business owner and pro-democracy activist.
On July 17, 1990 Saddam Hussein publicly accuses the United States and Kuwait of conspiring to destroy Iraq’s economy. He said: “If words fail to protect Iraqis, something effective must be done to return things to their natural course and to return usurped rights to their owners. … O God Almighty, be witness that we have warned them”. The next day Iraqi troops gathered at the Kuwait border. Thus, President Bush’s public statement that Iraq had invaded Kuwait with neither warning nor provocation was sheer deceit.
The United States, immediately began to demonize Saddam Hussein in order to sell the war to the American public. The government called Hussein a tyrant “worse than Hitler”, they said that America’s vital interests were at stake, and if we did not stop this evil man, more Americans would be out of work, worsening the current recession. When a poll showed that 54% of Americans would be in favor of preventing Iraq from acquiring nuclear weapons, Bush began exaggerating Iraq’s nuclear capability and military prowess.
On January 17, 1991 the United States began a 42-day bombing campaign against Iraq, in which more then 88,500 tons of explosives were dropped. The pentagon asserted that the bombings were “surgical strikes” and that everything was done to avoid civilian casualties. This however was not the case. The bombing of Iraq’s cities had nothing to do with driving Iraq from Kuwait. It was intended to cripple Iraq’s economy.
What was actually bombed? Homes, electrical plants, civilian factories, fuel storage plants, churches, civilian airports, hospitals, vehicles, transportation facilities, grain silos, animal vaccination centers, food storage and testing laboratories, schools, communication towers, stores, and civilian government office buildings. All the targets were hit 2 or 3 times to ensure their destruction.
“A hellish nightmare of fires and smoke so dense that witnesses say the sun hasn't been clearly visible for several days at at time…[The bombing is] leveling some entire city blocks… [and there are] bomb craters the size of football fields and an untold number of casualties” -- Los Angeles Times “Three waves of bombings at night. And I experienced bombing in Cambodia, but this was noting like that… After 20 minutes of this carpet-bombing there would be a silence and you would hear a screaming of children and people, and then the wounded would be dragged out. I found myself with everyone else trying to treat injuries, but the state of people generally was one of pure shock.” -- Paul Roberts, Journalist
25,000 bombing deaths 25,000 indirect deaths 100,000 post war deaths (from 1991-1992) 150,000 civilian deaths (by 1992) AND THE TOLL CONTINUES TO RISE
Long before the war began, US officials were well aware of its environmental dangers. In August 1990 the White House and the Pentagon signed an agreement to waive the National Environmental Protection Act requirements for US military operations in the Gulf. “ A war in the Gulf would not only result in devastating human death and injury and tremendous economic loss and prolonged political confrontation between Orient and Occident, it could also lead to an environmental catastrophe that would be swift, severe and devastating. The impact of a war on the 50 million barrels of oil that Kuwait produces, set in flames, could increase atmospheric carbon dioxide from there fires and the result would cause a global warming and result in lower food production” -- Jordan’s King Hussein at the 2nd World Climate Conference.
The fires that resulted from the war exceed 10% of the 2.5-billion-ton annual increase in atmospheric carbon, undermining international plans to reduce carbon emissions by 20% by the year 2005.
NUCLEAR AND CHEMICAL FALLOUT During the Gulf war, the US attacked 18 chemical, 10 biological, and 3 nuclear plants. The result of these attacks were immediately visible as Iraq was quickly covered with Chemical fallout, killing scores of civilians. US ground forces fired between 5,000 and 6,000 rounds of depleted uranium armor-piercing shells and aircraft launched 50,000 depleted uranium rockets and missiles. Leaving behind tons of radioactive rubble in Kuwait and Iraq.
On January 25, 1991 the pentagon reported an alarming oil slick spreading in the gulf. Was this an Iraqi “act of environmental terrorism”? Not exactly. On January 24, 1991 US aircraft hit two Iraqi oil tankers in the Persian Gulf. US bombing purposely targeted Iraq’s and Kuwait’s oil tankers and storage facilities on the shores of the Gulf. Oil covered otter
“ The oil spilled into the Gulf was at least twenty times greater than the Exxon Valdez spill. Although about one-sixth of the oil was recovered, the remainder has contaminated mangrove and wetlands areas along 200 miles of coast. The spill is estimated at 7.5 million barrels, the largest in history.” --Friends of the Earth International
The movement of 800,00 troops and thousands of tanks through the Iraqi Desert, destroyed the fragile ecosystem. The surface of a desert is held together by micro organisms, without them, seeds from desert brush cannot take root. Without vegetation the top sand blows away, speeding erosion and bringing sand storms. The chain of ecological events that occurred in the the desert as a consequence of the gulf war will take centuries to correct.
The war against Iraqi civilians started with sanctions long before the 1st bomb was dropped and it continues even now, seven years after the war has ended. “[Sanctions] provide a peaceful, silent, and DEADLY remedy.” --Woodrow Wilson
The bombings tore down Iraq's social infrastructure, while the continuing sanctions prevent them from rebuilding it. The war has reduced Iraq to a pre-industrial state, with no way to care for its people. Every day, 250 people die in Iraq due to US sanction.s. 32% of children under five are malnourished. That number has increased 72% since the war began in 1991.
Letter homeDistance Master Travelogue Bibliography
Dear Mom, As I visit Iraq I am appalled to lean what our country has done. Its amazing, I can remember when I was 11, calling Saddam Hussein “So Damn Insane” and thinking it was so funny. I actually bought a dart board with his face on it. At the time I thought it was very cool, because he was an evil man who invaded a poor helpless country. Talk about propaganda!! The United States was convicted of 14 counts of international war crimes in the Gulf war, and the American public never heard a word of it. I wonder why that is? We targeted innocent civilians and have be planning Iraq’s economic collapse since the 1950’s. For what? So that we can control their oil and in turn control the world. I guess what upsets me the most is that our government conducts itself in such a secretive and hypocritical way. We do things like this all the time, then the President gets on the news and praises our “peace keeping” policies or condemns terrorists. We are much worse then they are. They resort to violence because we leave them no other option. It is absolutely maddening, in a way ignorance is bliss. I hate that our government does stuff like this, kills innocent people, ruins a whole nation for its own advancement, yet I wouldn't give up my seat in the boat. America’s Foreign Policy Sucks, for lack of a better word. There has to be another way to operate in which we can still live our lives comfortably without having to play the world policeman and manipulate other countries like pawns for our own advantage. Love, Rachel Back to ttable of contents
Distance between Khartoum, Sudan and Cairo, Egypt, as the crow flies: 997 miles (1604 km) (866 nautical miles) Distance between Cairo, Egypt and Baghdad, Iraq, as the crow flies: 802 miles (1291 km) (697 nautical miles) TOTAL 1,799 miles
Aldoush and The Human Exchange, Love II (track 2) Clark, Ramsey The Fire This Time: U.S. War Crimes In The Gulf. 1992 Thundermouth Press. Iraq Action Coalition http://leb.net/IAC/ Newsweek Photo Gallery http://www.newsweek.con/nw-srv/gallery Pogue, Alan. “The Salt on the Wound” Texas observer, http://www.texasobserver.org.ipl.html Back to table of contents