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ذهن ما باغچه است گل در آن بايد كاشت گر نكاری ، گل من علف هرز در آن مي رويد زحمت كاشتن يك گل سرخ كمتر از زحمت برداشتن هرزگی آن علف است.

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Presentation on theme: "ذهن ما باغچه است گل در آن بايد كاشت گر نكاری ، گل من علف هرز در آن مي رويد زحمت كاشتن يك گل سرخ كمتر از زحمت برداشتن هرزگی آن علف است."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ذهن ما باغچه است گل در آن بايد كاشت گر نكاری ، گل من علف هرز در آن مي رويد زحمت كاشتن يك گل سرخ كمتر از زحمت برداشتن هرزگی آن علف است

3 Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition and Psychosomatic Medicine

4 Outline I. Overview Definitions Stress Theory II. Specific Disorders Gastrointestinal system Cardiovascular system Respiratory System Endocrine system Musculoskeletal System Psycho-oncology

5 Outline III. Treatment of Psychosomatic Disorders IV. Consultation Liaision Psychiatry

6 Overview Psychosomatic medicine - unity of mind and body Psychological factors are important in the development of disease

7 DSM IV -TR Uses psychological factors affecting medical condition instead of psychosomatic medicine “ one or more psychological or behavioral problems that adversely and significantly affect the course or outcome of a general medical condition, or that significantly increase a person’s risk of an adverse outcome”

8 Classification A. A general medical condition is present B. Psychological factors adversely affect the general medical condition in one of the following ways: 1. The factors have influenced the course of the general medical condition as shown by close temporal association between psychological factors and development or exacerbation of or delayed recovery from GMC

9 DSM 2. Factors interfere with the treatment of the general medical condition. 3. The factors constitute additional health risks for the individual 4. Stress related physiological responses precipitate or exacerbate symptoms of the general medical condition. Ex. Major depressive disorder delaying recovery from myocardial infarction; depressive symptoms delaying recovery from surgery

10 Exclusions Classic mental disorders that have physical symptoms - ex. Conversion disorder Somatization disorder - physical symptoms not based on organic pathology Hypochondriasis - exaggerated concern for health Physical complaints associated with mental illness like dysthymia Physical complaints associated with substance related disorders

11 History Psychosomatic medicine dates back to ancient beliefs Psychoanalytic - Sigmund Freud Psychophysiological - Walter Canon Sociocultural - Karen Horney Systems theory - Adolf Meyer

12 Stress theory Walter Canon - first systematic study of relation of stress to disease Harold Wolf - physiology of gastrointestinal tract appeared to correlate with specific emotional states Hans Selye ( ) General adaptation syndrome

13 General Adaptation Syndrome Phases 1. Alarm reaction 2. Stage of resistance - adaptation is ideally achieved 3. Stage of exhaustion - acquired adaptation or resistance may be lost

14 Definition Stress - non specific bodily response to any demand caused by either pleasant or unpleasant conditions Distress- unpleasant Stress may occur over long periods of time. Neuroendocrine and immune responses may help explain why and how stress may have deleterious effects

15 Neurotransmitters Stressors activate the noradrenergic system ( in the locus ceruleus ) and cause release of catecholamines from the autonomic nervous system. Stressors also activate the serotonergic systems ( increased turnover of serotonin ) Glucocorticoids may increase serotonin 5Ht2 mediated actions contributing to intensification of of receptors - implicated in pathophysiology of major depressive disorder

16 Endocrine response to stress In response to stress - Corticotropin - releasing factor (CRF ) is secreted from the hypothalamus into the hypophysial- pituitary portal system. CRF ---> release of glucocorticoids promoting energy, increase cardiovascular activity, inhibiting functions such as growth, reproduction, and immunity

17 Immune response to stress Part of stress response consists of inhibition of immune functioning by glucocorticoids. It can also cause immune activation which can also self limit the immune activation

18 Social readjustment scale Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe Rank relative degree of adjustment required by life events Death of spouse life change units Divorce / ( translated to annulment ) - 73 units Marital separation - 65 units Death of close family member - 63 units

19 Specific Disorders Gastrointestinal system - link between stress, anxiety, physiological response of gastrointestinal system Enteric system sensitive to emotional states ex. Esophagus, acute stress increases resting tone of the upper esophageal sphincter and increases contraction amplitude in the distal esophagus- globus or esophageal spasm syndrome.

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21 Type of Clinical Problem Psychiatric symptoms secondary to a medical condition: Delirium, dementia Psychiatric symptoms as a reaction to medical condition or treatment:Anxiety related to chemotherapy, depression related to limb amputation Psychiatric complications of medical conditions and treatment:Depression secondary to interferon treatment Psychological factors precipitating medical symptom:Somatoform

22 Medical complications of psychiatric conditions or treatment:Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, acute withdrawal from alcohol or other substance Co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions:Recurrence of depressive disorder in setting of cancer treatment (conditions occur independently); schizophrenia in a patient with end-stage renal

23 Gastrointestinal Contraction abnormalities and functional esophageal syndromes demonstrate high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity Anxiety disorders ranked high in a study of psychiatric co morbidities Anxiety disorders may induce physiological changes in the esophagus that can produce functional esophageal symptoms

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25 Peptic Ulcer prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders is greater generalized anxiety disorder, neuroticism, and childhood abuse Stressful life events SSRIs

26 Functional GI Disorders symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, and similar difficulties but which cannot be understood in terms of structural abnormalities The most frequent are IBS and functional dyspepsia

27 Functional Abdominal Pain Both Axis I diagnoses, notably anxiety and depression, but also Axis II diagnoses may be important living in a single-parent household, with parental history of peptic ulcer, and parental history of nonulcer GI disorders

28 Gastro esophageal reflux disease GERD - most common disorder of esophagus, accounts for over the counter antacid consumption Heartburn with regurgitation and pain Psychological distress increases symptom severity in patients prone to disease; study of GERD patients, excessive stress, too much excitement, family arguments, and temporary depression were felt trigger symptoms

29 Peptic Ulcer disease Mucosal ulceration of distal stomach or proximal duodenum ; gnawing or burning epigastric pain, 1-3 hours after meals with nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, or GIT bleeding Psychosocial factors are involved in the clinical expression of symptoms, possibly reducing immune responses, resulting in vulnerability to H. pylori infection

30 Crohn’s disease Inflammatory bowel disease affecting small intestine and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Study of psyhciatric symptoms in Crohn’s disease prior to the onset of physical symptoms found high rates ( 23 percent) of pre existing panic disorder

31 Psychiatric Adverse Effects Associated with Drugs histamine receptor antagonists- famotidine, cimetidine, ranitidine - increase blood levels of tricyclic and SSRIs Proton pump inhibitor - omeprazole - increase carbamazepine concentration GIT stimulant - metoclopramide, can cause depression, dystonia, parkinsonism Others, antiemetics, antiinfective agents - especially interaction with lithium can be nephrotoxic

32 Cardiovascular system Coronary heart disease - leading cause of death ( US) about 1/3 of all adults over 35 will ultimately die of cardiovascular disease. Psychiatric disorders frequently occur as complications or comorbid conditions Autonomic cardiac modulation sensitive to acute emotional stress ( intense anger, fear or sadness ) -- acute emotions, anxiety affects the heart

33 Hostility and Type A Behavior Pattern Type A - easily aroused anger, impatience, hostility, competitive striving, and time urgency and coronary heart disease ( 70’s and 80’s ) Hostility important predictor of coronary heart disease

34 Acute mental stress excitement, acute anger reduce blood flow through atherosclerotic coronary segments and provoke coronary spasm, causing abnormal left ventricular wall wall motion

35 Cardiovascular diseases Valvular heart disease and anxiety disorder - association of panic disorder and valvular heart disease Coronary artery bypass graft surgery - psychiatric complications especially depression Hypertension - personality profiles associated with essential hypertension include persons who have general readiness to be aggressive

36 Cardiovascular Vasovagal syncope - acutely stressful events are known etiological factors Cardiovascular presentation of psychiatric disorders - somatization disorder, panic disorder, anxiety and depression can all involve somatic complaints, psychiatric disorder associated with more visits to doctor and impairments in activities of daily living

37 Respiratory System Asthma - higher prevalence rates of mood disorders, post traumatic stress, substance use, and antisocial personality Fear of dyspnea may trigger attacks Personality traits may predispose to more use of drugs Intense fear, emotional lability, sensitivity to rejection, lack of persistence in difficult situations

38 Respiratory system Hyperventilation syndrome - often complain of suffocation, anxiety, giddiness, and light headedness Attack aborted by having patient to breath into paper bag

39 Endocrine System Hyperthyroidism - mood problems, psychosis Use of SSRIs, precaution with tricyclics Hypothyroidism - psychiatric symptoms can be depressed mood, apathy, impaired memory and other cognitive defects Subclinical hypothyroidism - may produce depressive symptoms and cofnitive deficits

40 Diabetes Mellitus Psychological factors - onset associated with emotional stress Important are feelings of frustration, loneliness and rejection Depressed, they tend to overeat

41 Adrenal disorders Hypercortisolism ( Cushing’s Syndrome ) - excessive secretion of ACTH or from adrenal pathology Psychiatric symptoms are common because of the effects Hyperprolactinemia - antipsychotics raise prolactin levels

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43 skin Psychological factors affecting medical condition atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, alopecia areata, urticaria and angioedema, acne vulgaris

44 Primary Psychiatric Disorders Delusional disorder, somatic type delusional parasitosis, delusions of a defect in appearance, delusions of a foul body odor. Impulse-control disorder not elsewhere classified (OCD spectrum disorder) psychogenic excoriation, trichotillomania, onychophagia Factitious disorder factitious dermatitis, psychogenic purpura

45 Skin Disorders Atopic dermatitis - pruritus and inflammation ; patients tend to be more anxious and depressed Psoriasis - silvery scales with glossy, homogenous erythema Leads to stress leading to more psoriasis, leading to interpersonal problems, depression, suicide

46 Skin disorders Psychogenic excoriation - lesions caused by scratching or picking - resembles obsessive compulsion, repetitive Localized pruritus - pruritus ani emotional disturbances can precipitate this Pruritus vulvae Hyperhidrosis - anxiety phenomenon, emotional stress and other dermatological conditions important

47 Musculoskeletal system Rhumatoid arthritis - inflammation of joints with musculoskeletal pain ; stress may predispose ; depression comorbid in 20 % of patients ; poor functioning, pain SLE - unpredictable, incapacitating, with toxic drugs, side effects lead to psychosis

48 Musculoskeletal System Low back pain - cans start during psychological pain, uses psycho education about vasospasm Fibromyalgia - pain and stiffness of soft tissues ; relationship of stress, spasm and pain, present in chronic fatigue and depressive disorders ; treatment includes psychotherapy and antidepressants

49 Headaches Migraines Tension ( muscle or contraction ) headaches

50 Psycho- oncology Impact of cancer on psychological functioning

51 Treatment of psychosomatic disorders Combined treatment Goals of treatment - mature general life adjustment, increased capacity for physical and occupational activity, avoidance of complications, reversal of pathology Psychiatric aspects - reluctant to deal with emotional problems Development of relationship and transference

52 Medical Aspects Beahvioral change Rapport Negotiating strategies by Aaron lazare 1. Direct education 2. Third party intervention 3. Exploration of options 4. Provision of sample treatment

53 Strategies 5. Control sharing 6. Concession making 7. Empathic confrontation 8. Standard setting Relapse - dealing with it entails cognitive, attitudinal, instrumental, coping, social and environmental, contact

54 Strategies 5. Control sharing 6. Concession making 7. Empathic confrontation 8. Standard setting Relapse - dealing with it entails cognitive, attitudinal, instrumental, coping, social and environmental, contact

55 Other types of therapy Group psychotherapy and family therapy Relaxation techniques Hypnosis Biofeedback

56 Consultation liaison psychiatry Study, practice, and teaching of the relation between medical and psychiatric disorders Psychiatrists as consultants Play many roles Interviewer, therapist, teacher, physician as part of the team, diagnosis and treatment

57 C-L psychiatry Common C-L problems Suicide, depression, agitation, hallucinations, sleep disorder, disorientation, no organic basis for symptoms, non compliance or refusal to consent procedure Hemodialysis units ; surgical units, transplantation units

58 Conclusion Important to consider psychological problems of the medically ill patient What did you learn today ?

59 Thank you For your kind attention and for not sleeping in my class !


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