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Why is interpretation used as a tool to manage the tourist experience? Sophie SWART.

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Presentation on theme: "Why is interpretation used as a tool to manage the tourist experience? Sophie SWART."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why is interpretation used as a tool to manage the tourist experience? Sophie SWART

2  1.Defined as being affected by or gaining knowledge by observation or participation. 2.Is unique and meaningful to the individual ² and an escape from everyday life ³. 3.Tourists develop these experiences from their contacts with: Government bodies, host communities, travel agencies, etc. 4.Experiences start with trip planning and finish with trip evaluation post-travel. What is a “Tourism Experience”?

3  1.Tourism experiences are highly personal and are constantly changing, so it is difficult to provide a general definition. 2.They also differ from different countries and cultures. The problem with defining tourism experiences

4  1.Positive tourist satisfaction = Positive tourism experiences. 2.But, satisfaction is only obtained when pre-existing expectations are exceeded. 3.Strong correlation between overall satisfaction and intention to recommend and repeat the experiences. 4.Therefore the aim for management is to increase tourist satisfaction. Tourist satisfaction and tourism experiences

5  1.“Providing information to visitors about the places that are in and encouraging them to appreciate and care for these places.” 2.It “enhances the enjoyment of tourists by explaining symbolic meanings and facilitating changes in their attitudes and behaviours.” 3.It can be indirect (signage, audio, literature, internet, etc.) or direct (personal face-to-face visitor interaction). 4.Equally it can either be onsite or offsite. What is interpretation?

6  1.Tourists seek certain satisfaction outcomes from their tourism experiences such as education and knowledge, and these can be defined as a motivation to travel. 2.Interpretation is the means to deliver this education and knowledge. 3.In simplified terms it can then be argued that tourists are motivated to learn, and this motivation coupled with appropriate interpretation adapted to their needs, results in them being more satisfied at the end of their visit, and hence having a better tourism experience. Motivation for knowledge and the need for interpretation

7  1.Visitor satisfaction (as a result of being exposed to interpretation programmes) can be used to measure management performance. 2.Interpretation effectiveness as a management tool is strengthened by a better understanding of the needs and wants of the target market. 3.Once understood, management can then design appropriate interpretative programmes to achieve management objectives. Interpretation as a management tool

8  1. Economic Stability: It contributes to (sustainable) tourism as it enhances the quality of the experience for the tourist and encourages economic stability and sustainability. 1. Changed Values and Behaviours: a.It can thought provoke, create meaning and eventually change behaviour. b.It encourages the tourist to be further implicated, involved and satisfied, and more likely to spend more time at the exhibition, purchase something, return again, generate positive word of mouth, volunteer, etc. 2. Spread the Message: It can promote sustainability and environmental causes, by educating tourists on the impacts of visitor use, encourage appropriate behaviours and make visitors support the underlying philosophies of the site. 3. Provide Differentiation: It can provide a method to differentiate the tourism product from different tour operators, by tailoring the offer to different market segments, therefore attracting business. Management benefits of interpretation

9  1. Quality interpretation is a key component in the development of a sustainable tourism industry, for visitors have the potential to spread the message “around the globe.” 2.Collecting regular feedback from visitors ensures that effective management decisions can be made, rather than just relying on “gut feeling.” 3.Feedback allows management to “design and deliver a memorable experiences likely to result in positive post- consumption reactions.” 4.Interpretation remains an extremely powerful tool for management, but it needs to be understood and correctly applied to maximise its benefits. Management implications

10  accessed on 10th March accessed on 13th March 3.Aho, S. K. (2001). "Towards a general theory of touristic experiences: Modelling experience process in tourism" Tourism Review 56 (3/4): 33 - 37. 4.Archer, D. and S. Wearing (2002). "Interpretation and marketing as management tools in national parks: Insights from Australia." Journal of Leisure Property 2 (1): 29. 5.Camelis, C. and C. Maunier (2013). "Toward an identification of elements contributing to satisfaction with the tourism experience." Journal of Vacation Marketing 19 (1): 19-39. 6.Chappel, S. 2008, TOUR 5001 Study Guide, University of South Australia, Adelaide. 7.Cutler, S. Q. and B. A. Carmichael (2010). "The dimensions of the tourist experience." The Tourism and Leisure Experience: Consumer and Managerial Perspectives 44 : 1. Rojas, C. and C. Camarero (2008). "Visitors’ experience, mood and satisfaction in a heritage context: Evidence from an interpretation center." Tourism Management 29 (3): 525-537. 9.Ham, S. and B. Weiler (2007). "Isolating the role of on-site interpretation in a satisfying experience." Journal of Interpretation Research 12 (2): 5-24. 10.Ham, S. H. and B. Weiler (2002). Interpretation as the centrepiece of sustainable wildlife tourism. Sustainable tourism: a global perspective. R. Harris, Williams, P & Griffin T. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann : 9. 11.Jennings, G., et al. (2009). "Quality Tourism Experiences: Reviews, Reflections, Research Agendas." Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 18 (2- 3). 12.Jennings, G. and N. Nickerson (2012). Quality tourism experiences. Quality tourism experiences, Routledge : 24-44. 13.Moscardo, G. (1998). "Interpretation and Sustainable Tourism." The Journal of Tourism Studies 9 (1). 14.Moscardo, G 2006, " Is near enough good enough? Understanding and managing customer satisfaction with wildlife-based tourism experiences" CABI, Wallingford, UK. 15.Rabotic, B 2010 'professional tourist guiding: the importance of interpretation for tourist experiences', Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija. 20th Biennial International Congress: New Trends in Tourism and Hotel Management, Opatija (Croatia), 06–08.05.2010, [*VOLUME UNKOWN*], pp. 1157- 1168 16.Stewart, E. J., et al. (1998). "The “place” of interpretation: a new approach to the evaluation of interpretation." Tourism Management 19 (3): 257-266. 17.Williams, C. and J. Buswell (2003). The leisure and tourism experience. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing. References

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