Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Data, Information and Knowledge Three central concepts within informatics.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Data, Information and Knowledge Three central concepts within informatics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Data, Information and Knowledge Three central concepts within informatics

2 © Per Flensburg 2 My background 13 years at Lund university 13 years at Lund university 10 years at Copenhagen Business School 10 years at Copenhagen Business School 6 years at Växjö university 6 years at Växjö university Ideal: Maxium user influence Ideal: Maxium user influence Strong philosophical interest Strong philosophical interest Certain tendencies to provoke Certain tendencies to provoke

3 © Per Flensburg 3 Contact information Tel: (work) Tel: (work) (home) (home) (best!) (best!) (homepage) (homepage) OBS: No cellular phåne! OBS: No cellular phåne! This presentation can be found on my homepage ( : pkt 19 ”Presentations” This presentation can be found on my homepage ( : pkt 19 ”Presentations”

4 © Per Flensburg 4 Data Data is symbols without meaning for instance, knbx, #€5, ±|6 S, 31, fokularin, Härlanda, november, prison Data is symbols without meaning for instance, knbx, #€5, ±|6 S, 31, fokularin, Härlanda, november, prison

5 © Per Flensburg 5 Information If we put data into a syntax, a structure, we get information If we put data into a syntax, a structure, we get information Ex: “The 31st November 2001 there was 42 focularines inprisoned in the prison of Härlanda. Ex: “The 31st November 2001 there was 42 focularines inprisoned in the prison of Härlanda. The same data can be put into different structures. There is a one-many relation between data and information. The same data can be put into different structures. There is a one-many relation between data and information.

6 © Per Flensburg 6 Exempel

7 7 Knowledge Information put into a context can be interpreted to knowledge by a human being Information put into a context can be interpreted to knowledge by a human being The same information can be put into different contexts and interpreted different The same information can be put into different contexts and interpreted different The same information in the same context can be interpreted different by different people. The same information in the same context can be interpreted different by different people.

8 © Per Flensburg 8 Example (DN) In a big newspaper we find Tabell 2. Status of prisons 31/

9 © Per Flensburg 9 Exemple (Anticimex journal) This syntax is the same as in the previous picture Tabell 2. Status of prisons 31/ In a journal from a rat extinktion company we find:

10 © Per Flensburg 10 Interpretation vs knowledge In the two examples the information is interpreted different even if both structure and data is the same. In the two examples the information is interpreted different even if both structure and data is the same. But since we don’t what “focularines” are we get no knowledge. But since we don’t what “focularines” are we get no knowledge. But we get some sort what-ever-it-is, at least more than the pure data. But we get some sort what-ever-it-is, at least more than the pure data.

11 © Per Flensburg 11 But what is a ”focularine”? It is a member of a catholic secular monastery, which should spread the knowledge about God through their own example. It is a member of a catholic secular monastery, which should spread the knowledge about God through their own example. They are very kind, unharmful and holy They are very kind, unharmful and holy There are about 50 in the whole Scandinavia There are about 50 in the whole Scandinavia

12 © Per Flensburg 12 Knowledge The sentence ” ”The 31st November 2001 there was 42 focularines in the prison of Härlanda.” kan thus give the following knowledge: The sentence ” ”The 31st November 2001 there was 42 focularines in the prison of Härlanda.” kan thus give the following knowledge: Fakticity, the fact that it is so in reality. Fakticity, the fact that it is so in reality. Maybe they had a meeting in the prison. Maybe they had a meeting in the prison. Maybe it is illegal to be focularine Maybe it is illegal to be focularine Maybe the focularines suddenly have become militant Maybe the focularines suddenly have become militant

13 © Per Flensburg 13 A more possible interpretation It is not correct! There was not 42 focularines in the prison of Härlanda the 31st November Besides November has only 30 days.

14 © Per Flensburg 14 The lesson from this? Knowledge is the important thing. Knowledge is the important thing. DataInformationKnowledge Information Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge

15 © Per Flensburg 15 In other words The same information is interpreted different by different people The same information is interpreted different by different people It is also interpreted different by the same human being due to the context. It is also interpreted different by the same human being due to the context. Data thus always means different things Data thus always means different things

16 © Per Flensburg 16 Summary so far Context Syntax Information Knowledge DATA

17 © Per Flensburg 17 What’s this? It is a drawing of a table. Most people think it is a table, but that is wrong. Tables are not in this way. Can you define ”table”? Let us agree upon the following: A table is a square surface with four legs.

18 © Per Flensburg 18 So, what is this? Three types of answers: Students: They say nothing. They don’t know what it is! IT-experts: It is a table! Ordinary people: It is a chair! Conclusion: Students and IT- experts have a queer apprenhesion of reality!

19 © Per Flensburg 19 This is a table

20 © Per Flensburg 20 This is no table!

21 © Per Flensburg 21 Neither is this!

22 © Per Flensburg 22 And definitively not this!

23 © Per Flensburg 23 Can this be a table?

24 © Per Flensburg 24 If so, this is also a table!

25 © Per Flensburg 25 Does this man sits at a table?

26 © Per Flensburg 26 Table?

27 © Per Flensburg 27 Two surfaces! No table!

28 © Per Flensburg 28 If so, this is a table!

29 © Per Flensburg 29 What do we learn from this? Everybody know what a table is Everybody know what a table is Everybody recognise a table and can distinguish it from other phenomenons such as chairs, book-shelfs, working benches, pianos and schrewdrivers. Everybody recognise a table and can distinguish it from other phenomenons such as chairs, book-shelfs, working benches, pianos and schrewdrivers. But we can’t define it! Our knowledge is tacit! But we can’t define it! Our knowledge is tacit!

30 © Per Flensburg 30 Different types of tacit knowledge Ostentative knowledge Ostentative knowledge Skill, for instance of a carpenter Skill, for instance of a carpenter Judgements, for instance reports, thesis, wine Judgements, for instance reports, thesis, wine Specific working place knowledge Specific working place knowledge Cultural knowledge, for instance in other countries Cultural knowledge, for instance in other countries Language games Language games

31 © Per Flensburg 31 Relevance for systems design The systems designer must be well aquainted with tacit knowledge, since design of system is uttermost a development of a language game (i.e. Welanschauung) for other persons. The systems designer must be well aquainted with tacit knowledge, since design of system is uttermost a development of a language game (i.e. Welanschauung) for other persons. Only those working within the system domain (i.e. those who are going to use the system) fully understand what it all is about. Only those working within the system domain (i.e. those who are going to use the system) fully understand what it all is about.

32 © Per Flensburg 32 Highest relevance The conclusion is thus: Only the users can design and develop correct systems = corresponding to reality The conclusion is thus: Only the users can design and develop correct systems = corresponding to reality Unfortunately they are often not true = logically coherent Unfortunately they are often not true = logically coherent But despite that, it is always right (= morally right) to allow them to do that. But despite that, it is always right (= morally right) to allow them to do that.


Download ppt "Data, Information and Knowledge Three central concepts within informatics."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google