Presentation on theme: "“Promoting and Assessing Critical Thinking” STRATEGIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION Prepared by: Mr. Flas Julius Floresta, RN."— Presentation transcript:
“Promoting and Assessing Critical Thinking” STRATEGIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION Prepared by: Mr. Flas Julius Floresta, RN
WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING? ACCORDING TO DRESSEL & MAYHEW: The ability to define a problem, select pertinent info. Needed to solve the problem, recognize stated & unstated assumptions formulate or select relevant & promising hypotheses, draw valid conclusions, & judge the validity of inferences.
WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING? ACCORDING TO Watson & Glaser -A composite of inquiry; knowledge of the nature of valid inferences, abstractions, generalizations; and skills in employing & applying these attitudes and this knowledge.
WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING? ACCORDING TO Nat’l League for Nursing, 2001 -Is a discipline specific, reflective reasoning process that guides nursing in generating, implementing, and evaluating approaches for dealing with client care and professional concerns.
A critical thinker is nonbiased, reasoned, and truth oriented. Critical thinking involves making judgments. Thinking can be judged to be “critical” if it holds up to certain evaluative criteria and; Critical thinking is tied to belief or action (it is done for some purpose). ANALYSIS OF DEFINITIONS:
PROBLEM SOLVING -“Correct answers usually exists & limited number approaches will work” (Step-by-step process) SCIENTIFIC METHOD -Linear -Objective -Studying problems to find solutions -Minimizes bias & personal involvement in a situation DIFFERENCE OF CT FROM OTHER CONCEPTS:
NURSING PROCESS -step-by-step process -involves assessment (diagnosis), plan implementation (action) & evaluation -linear COGNITIVE/INTELLECTUAL DEV’T. -How individuals reason, view knowledge, manage diversity of opinion & conflicting points of view -Relate to authorities as they come to understand DIFFERENCE OF CT FROM OTHER CONCEPTS:
CREATIVE -Involves imagination and spontaneity -Artistic and free -Original and intuitive -Leads to a novel product (ideas, solution, invention) DIFFERENCE OF CT FROM OTHER CONCEPTS:
Educators’ System & Practice -Structure of class sessions -Use/ Overuse of Lecture Format -Guidelines on Assignments given to students -Use of Multiple-choice Questionnaires -Taking Responsibility for Learners’ Clinical Assignments WAYS CT IS INHIBITED AMONG STUDENTS:
Discussions 1. Focus on depth of understanding more than on breadth of content. 2. Highest level of discussion occurs when teachers/ students engaged in thoughtful dialogue about unannounced topics. 3. Learners discover answer to their own by thinking through the questions (most effective strategy). STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTES CRITICAL THINKING:
Most significant concepts & principles are addressed because contents are streamlined. ‘Controlled Chaos ‘ –excellent opportunity for teachers to give up control so they can help learners realized their strengths & flaws in thinking. Irrelevant & passive thoughts were minimized. Discussions actively holds their thoughts to the immediate situation. Advantages (Discussions)
Unpredictable- may make a classroom ‘a relatively chaotic affair’ in which some of the learners may have said erroneous or incomplete that needs to be corrected by the teacher Disadvantages of Discussions:
Asking Effective Questions To promote critical thinking, ask questions that: Probe thinking clarity Hold individuals accountable (the relevance, depth & breadth) of their thinking Move learners from mere enactment of the nursing role to the internalization of questions they need to ask themselves to become astute practitioners STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTES CRITICAL THINKING: (Con’t)
SOCRATIC METHOD 1. Relies heavily in probing 2. Thoughts-provoking questions are posed by the teacher 3. Thoughts are treated as if they are in need of further development & refinement regardless how reflective they are 4. Help learner seek or understand the ultimate foundation what is said. DIFFERENCE BET. SOCRATIC METHOD & STRUCTURED CONTROVERSY STRUCTURED CONTROVERSY 1. Relies heavily on effective questioning 2. Controversy is purposefully introduced 3. Arguments against an issue to reach a consensus that they can support with an evidence by use of reasoned judgment 4. Enhances thinking; both cognitive & affective learning
Text Interactions Goal: To help the learner think about what they are reading so that they develop the questioning attitude or spirit of inquiry that characterizes a Critical Thinker. Learners: Raise questions about what is presented Note assumptions that are being made Point out conflicting information Recognize when conclusions are being drawn without adequate evidence provided Note questions that are not answered in the text STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTES CRITICAL THINKING: (Con’t)
A newer teaching/learning strategy in a particular course or set of course or it may used as the design for the entire curriculum. Learners typically address the problems in teams by working collaboratively to complete a series of problems through which they will learn the concepts that faculty deemed most significant. Concepts will be learn at diff. speed, sequence, and learning circumstances. STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTES CRITICAL THINKING: (Con’t) Problem-Based Learning
Concept maps- metacognitive tools that assist learners to “see” their own thinking and reasoning. Concept mapping is a way to help learners develop their critical thinking skill & make their thinking visible. It promotes integrated thinking and points out areas where conflicting information exists-important factors in critical thinking and effective clinical practice. STRATEGIES THAT PROMOTES CRITICAL THINKING: (Con’t) Concept Mapping
CASE STUDIES -Provide learners with an open-ended problem that has more than one desirable outcome. LEARNERS ARE REQUIRED TO: o Judge the advantage/disadvantages of various options. o Compare alternative solution o Justify the choice of action VI. Other Strategies
COLLABORATIVE LEARNING Teams of learners working to complete tasked assignment by using individual talents to solve the problem, criticizing each other’s work and learning from one another. Dyad Testing-one specific collaborative strategy in which pairs of learners work together to respond to test questions
ONE- MINUTE PAPERS Easiest, most enjoyable way to think critically on a conscious basis. Feedback by the educators focus on: 1. Clarifying areas confusion 2. Answering questions 3.Commenting in quality response 4. (Helps learners “metacognitive” skills to develop)
MICROTHEMES Writing to learn strategies One-to-two page written analyses or thought papers about “controversial” topics related to the course that are completed on a regular or weekly basis. JOURNALS Narrative form Excellent way to help learners reflect on their experiences, values, actions, & interactions with other fears, insights, & concerns
SELF-ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION A strategy to promote critical thinking when viewed as more than mere completion of forms. To promote critical thinking among learners, educators create a POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT where: Students feel safe, respected & supported to engage in experiences that may make them uncomfortable. Educators’ uses silence to encourage reflections, introduces controversy & then helps the individuals learn how to manage it & role models critical thinking. Educators maximizes strategies that challenge students by freedom to choose, flexibility, self direction, abstract thinking, independent functioning, peer collaboration, diverse perspective and values and support risk- taking opportunities.