2 Preparatory Work Review Syllabus APA writing guidelines: APA5thWritingStyleSamplePaper.pdfCollect week 1 assignmentTeam FormationForm into groupsWrite team member names on a piece of paper; andWrite the top two problems you’ve had with groups in the pastMake sure these issues get addressed in your team charter
3 Critical Thinking and Computer Logic “In this course we attempt to develop critical thinking skills through a series of readings, lectures, case studies, and writing assignments”“Critical Thinking is not learned by memorization or fact finding like other courses but from challenging your own intellect in the face of information you are presented”
4 Critical Thinking and Computer Logic Week One:Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision MakingWeek Two:Problem Identification & FormulationWeek Three:Decision MakingWeek Four:Decision ImplementationWeek Five:Evaluation of Decision Outcomes & Processes
5 Workshop Topics Critical Thinking: What is it? Decision Making Models The role of logic in critical thinking
6 Critical Thinking and Computer Logic DefinitionBenefitsStandardsBarriersPhases
8 Critical ThinkingDefinition: Critical Thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.Source: Draft written for The Center for Critical Thinking by Scriven, M., & Paul, R., 2004)
9 Critical ThinkingDefinition: "Critical thinking is that mode of thinking - about any subject, content, or problem - in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them"Source: Paul & Elder, 2001, p. xx
10 Critical ThinkingDefinition: “…critical thinking is a broad concept that encompasses a lot about college or university academic expectations. But for our purposes it's enough to say that in a research or reading context it means not considering any view as "truth" simply because a source has been published or seems to be an expert”Advices the thinker to be skeptical of any claim until one’s own reason and logic prove it otherwiseSource:
11 Critical Thinking What are the benefits of Critical Thinking? Think of key points from definitions just given
12 Critical Thinking Benefits Allows us to discern valid/true information from invalid/false information (arguments Vs. fallacies)Enables a process for gathering and analyzing information that leads to “good decision making”Good decision making is an essential part of sound management and leadershipCritical Thinking, more than just a tool, it is a way of lifeGood decision making: defensible decisionsWe all think, but we can learn to think objectively.
13 To Be a Critical Thinker Means: To maintain some objectivity and ask questions to yourself as you read (or watch or listen).Have a slight air of initial skepticism that urges the resource to convince you of its authority.Have a critical eye that teaches you to regard anything-- especially if it's published or in other media-- as if you're doing a peer edit.To always have inquisitiveness as a skill.
14 Critical Thinking Standards Clarity Precision Accuracy Relevance ConsistencyLogical CorrectnessCompletenessFairnessGoals that CT tries to achieve or hold in hi regard
15 Critical Thinking Barriers (Filters) Egocentrism Sociocentrism Unwarranted Assumptions and StereotypesWishful ThinkingEmotionsLanguageFallaciesNote: Barriers and Standards are also referred to as “Components” of critical thinking
16 Critical Thinking Phases Trigger event Appraisal Exploration Developing alternative perspectivesIntegrationLike any process, CT process has a predictable set of steps or phasesTrigger: a problem we have to solve, or an argument we are asked to accept, etcAppraisal: Initial test to assess the merits of the information given: is it a fallacy or a well formed argumentExploration: evaluation of the information to assess truth ness of falsenessDeveloping Alternative perspectives: this is where we formulate alternative that are consistent with our beliefsIntegration: we formulate our decision, take action
18 Critical Thinking & Decision Making What are Decision Making models?They are tools that provide a framework for making critical decision.Most models follow a similar pattern:Problem identificationMaking the decisionFinally evaluating the impacts of that decisionThe pattern changes according to the field of discipline in which they are used and the types of data to be evaluatedManagerial decision vs. operations decision driven by statistical dataDecision Models: Input from student assignments
19 Decision Making Model Examples University of Phoenix ModelDMAICAny models from your assignment ?
20 Critical Thinking & Decision Making University of Phoenix Model (9 step model)Framing the ProblemMaking the DecisionEvaluating the Decision
21 Critical Thinking & Decision Making Framing the ProblemIdentify the problemDefine criteria, goals, and objectivesEvaluate the effect of the problem
22 Critical Thinking & Decision Making Making the DecisionIdentify causes of the problemFrame alternativesEvaluate impacts of alternativesMake the decision
23 Critical Thinking & Decision Making Evaluating the DecisionMeasure impactsImplement decision
26 Critical Thinking and Logic The concept of “logical correctness” is one fundamental standards in critical thinkingSo what is Logic?the branch of philosophy that analyzes inferencereasoned and reasonable judgment; "it made a certain kind of logic"the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation; "economic logic requires it"; "by the logic of war"a system of reasoningThe system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine's representation of logical operationsSource: wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
27 Categories of Logic Inductive Logic Deductive Logic Inductive reasoning is required when you cannot ascertain the absolute certainty of the conclusion based on the given evidence, but you can establish probability.Deductive LogicDeductive reasoning can be used when the premises (reasons, facts, evidence, etc.) prove WITH ABSOLUTE CERTAINTY that the conclusion is true, assuming that the premises are truePhysical evidence: the defendant’s finger prints are all over the robbery sceneCircumstantial evidence: a jacket similar to that of the defendant was found at the robbery scene
28 Logic Terms and Concepts Inductive StrengthDeductive Validity, Truth of PremisesProbabilityCertaintyReasoning from Diverse FactsReasoning from (assumed) Known FactsGeneralization ArgumentsConditional ArgumentsHypothesis ArgumentsSyllogismsAnalogical ArgumentsVenn Diagrams
30 Class ActivityExamine the relationship of Critical Thinking and Decision Making.Think of one business decisions from your own experience.Evaluate whether or not critical thinking was applied to solve the problem and if so, how.Did you operate from an assumption.Was it a correct (warranted) assumption?Were emotions involved?How did emotions impact the decision-making process?
31 Class Activity 2 Questions for thought: 1. What role does logic and emotion both play in decision making?2. How might assumptions alter the way a problem is assessed?3. How can language become a barrier to critical thought?
32 NEXT WEEK Week Two: Problem Identification & Formulation Week One: Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision MakingWeek Two:Problem Identification & FormulationWeek Three:Decision MakingWeek Four:Decision ImplementationWeek Five:Evaluation of Decision Outcomes & Processes
33 Week 2 TopicsArgumentsFallaciesThe Nature of Decisions Making
34 Week 2 Reading Assignment Critical Thinking: A Student's Introduction, Chapters 5 and 6. Management: The New Competitive Landscape, Chapter 3. Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, Chapter 1. Articles for Week Two. Master List of Logical Fallacies
35 Week 2 Individual Assignment Respond to the Discussion Questions posted by your instructor.Fallacy Summary and Application Paper.Select three logical fallacies from your readings.Prepare a 1,050-1,400-word paper, in which you define each of the three fallacies, explain its significance to Critical Thinking, and discuss its general application to Decision Making.Using various sources (Internet, magazines, papers, trade journals, etc.)* find organizational examples that illustrate each one of your chosen fallacies.Be sure to use and cite at least four different references in your paper.*at least two must come from an ad or paper article or media other than the book
36 Week 2 Team Assignment Create a Learning Team Charter. Problem Analysis Project SummaryEach Learning Team will select a work related problem, preferably one that a Learning Team member is experiencing at his/her workplace. This problem will be the focus of all of the Learning Team’s deliverables.Each week an assignment related to this final project is due. These are the deliverables:Week Two Deliverable - Part I: Problem Analysis SummaryWeek Three Deliverable - Part II: Problem Analysis Paper and PresentationWeek Four Deliverable - Part III: Problem Analysis and Decision-Making Technique PaperWeek Five Deliverable - Part IV: Problem Analysis Final Project: Implementation and Evaluation PlanPart I: Problem Analysis SummarySelect a work related problem preferably one that a Learning Team member is experiencing at his/her workplace.Prepare a word summary paper that identifies and clearly states the problem. This problem needs to be sufficiently focused to use as a cumulative Learning Team assignment over the next four weeks. In your problem analysis be sure to address the following issues:Brief background of the problem.What was the triggering event that exposed the problem?The applicable components of Critical Thinking.