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CSS/330: Critical Thinking and Computer Logic

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1 CSS/330: Critical Thinking and Computer Logic
© 2004 University of Phoenix. University of Phoenix is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.

2 Preparatory Work Review Syllabus
APA writing guidelines: APA5thWritingStyleSamplePaper.pdf Collect week 1 assignment Team Formation Form into groups Write team member names on a piece of paper; and Write the top two problems you’ve had with groups in the past Make sure these issues get addressed in your team charter

3 Critical Thinking and Computer Logic
“In this course we attempt to develop critical thinking skills through a series of readings, lectures, case studies, and writing assignments” “Critical Thinking is not learned by memorization or fact finding like other courses but from challenging your own intellect in the face of information you are presented”

4 Critical Thinking and Computer Logic
Week One: Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making Week Two: Problem Identification & Formulation Week Three: Decision Making Week Four: Decision Implementation Week Five: Evaluation of Decision Outcomes & Processes

5 Workshop Topics Critical Thinking: What is it? Decision Making Models
The role of logic in critical thinking

6 Critical Thinking and Computer Logic
Definition Benefits Standards Barriers Phases

7 Critical Thinking: What is it?

8 Critical Thinking Definition: Critical Thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Source: Draft written for The Center for Critical Thinking by Scriven, M., & Paul, R., 2004)

9 Critical Thinking Definition: "Critical thinking is that mode of thinking - about any subject, content, or problem - in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them" Source: Paul & Elder, 2001, p. xx

10 Critical Thinking Definition: “…critical thinking is a broad concept that encompasses a lot about college or university academic expectations. But for our purposes it's enough to say that in a research or reading context it means not considering any view as "truth" simply because a source has been published or seems to be an expert” Advices the thinker to be skeptical of any claim until one’s own reason and logic prove it otherwise Source:

11 Critical Thinking What are the benefits of Critical Thinking?
Think of key points from definitions just given

12 Critical Thinking Benefits
Allows us to discern valid/true information from invalid/false information (arguments Vs. fallacies) Enables a process for gathering and analyzing information that leads to “good decision making” Good decision making is an essential part of sound management and leadership Critical Thinking, more than just a tool, it is a way of life Good decision making: defensible decisions We all think, but we can learn to think objectively.

13 To Be a Critical Thinker Means:
To maintain some objectivity and ask questions to yourself as you read (or watch or listen). Have a slight air of initial skepticism that urges the resource to convince you of its authority. Have a critical eye that teaches you to regard anything-- especially if it's published or in other media-- as if you're doing a peer edit. To always have inquisitiveness as a skill.

14 Critical Thinking Standards Clarity Precision Accuracy Relevance
Consistency Logical Correctness Completeness Fairness Goals that CT tries to achieve or hold in hi regard

15 Critical Thinking Barriers (Filters) Egocentrism Sociocentrism
Unwarranted Assumptions and Stereotypes Wishful Thinking Emotions Language Fallacies Note: Barriers and Standards are also referred to as “Components” of critical thinking

16 Critical Thinking Phases Trigger event Appraisal Exploration
Developing alternative perspectives Integration Like any process, CT process has a predictable set of steps or phases Trigger: a problem we have to solve, or an argument we are asked to accept, etc Appraisal: Initial test to assess the merits of the information given: is it a fallacy or a well formed argument Exploration: evaluation of the information to assess truth ness of falseness Developing Alternative perspectives: this is where we formulate alternative that are consistent with our beliefs Integration: we formulate our decision, take action


18 Critical Thinking & Decision Making
What are Decision Making models? They are tools that provide a framework for making critical decision. Most models follow a similar pattern: Problem identification Making the decision Finally evaluating the impacts of that decision The pattern changes according to the field of discipline in which they are used and the types of data to be evaluated Managerial decision vs. operations decision driven by statistical data Decision Models: Input from student assignments

19 Decision Making Model Examples
University of Phoenix Model DMAIC Any models from your assignment ?

20 Critical Thinking & Decision Making
University of Phoenix Model (9 step model) Framing the Problem Making the Decision Evaluating the Decision

21 Critical Thinking & Decision Making
Framing the Problem Identify the problem Define criteria, goals, and objectives Evaluate the effect of the problem

22 Critical Thinking & Decision Making
Making the Decision Identify causes of the problem Frame alternatives Evaluate impacts of alternatives Make the decision

23 Critical Thinking & Decision Making
Evaluating the Decision Measure impacts Implement decision

24 UoP Decision Making Model


26 Critical Thinking and Logic
The concept of “logical correctness” is one fundamental standards in critical thinking So what is Logic? the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference reasoned and reasonable judgment; "it made a certain kind of logic" the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation; "economic logic requires it"; "by the logic of war" a system of reasoning The system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine's representation of logical operations Source:

27 Categories of Logic Inductive Logic Deductive Logic
Inductive reasoning is required when you cannot ascertain the absolute certainty of the conclusion based on the given evidence, but you can establish probability. Deductive Logic Deductive reasoning can be used when the premises (reasons, facts, evidence, etc.) prove WITH ABSOLUTE CERTAINTY that the conclusion is true, assuming that the premises are true Physical evidence: the defendant’s finger prints are all over the robbery scene Circumstantial evidence: a jacket similar to that of the defendant was found at the robbery scene

28 Logic Terms and Concepts
Inductive Strength Deductive Validity, Truth of Premises Probability Certainty Reasoning from Diverse Facts Reasoning from (assumed) Known Facts Generalization Arguments Conditional Arguments Hypothesis Arguments Syllogisms Analogical Arguments Venn Diagrams

29 Critical Thinking & Decision Making

30 Class Activity Examine the relationship of Critical Thinking and Decision Making. Think of one business decisions from your own experience. Evaluate whether or not critical thinking was applied to solve the problem and if so, how. Did you operate from an assumption. Was it a correct (warranted) assumption? Were emotions involved? How did emotions impact the decision-making process?

31 Class Activity 2 Questions for thought:
1. What role does logic and emotion both play in decision making? 2. How might assumptions alter the way a problem is assessed? 3. How can language become a barrier to critical thought?

32 NEXT WEEK Week Two: Problem Identification & Formulation Week One:
Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making Week Two: Problem Identification & Formulation Week Three: Decision Making Week Four: Decision Implementation Week Five: Evaluation of Decision Outcomes & Processes

33 Week 2 Topics Arguments Fallacies The Nature of Decisions Making

34 Week 2 Reading Assignment
Critical Thinking: A Student's Introduction, Chapters 5 and 6.   Management: The New Competitive Landscape, Chapter 3.   Judgment in Managerial Decision Making, Chapter 1.   Articles for Week Two.   Master List of Logical Fallacies

35 Week 2 Individual Assignment
Respond to the Discussion Questions posted by your instructor. Fallacy Summary and Application Paper. Select three logical fallacies from your readings. Prepare a 1,050-1,400-word paper, in which you define each of the three fallacies, explain its significance to Critical Thinking, and discuss its general application to Decision Making. Using various sources (Internet, magazines, papers, trade journals, etc.)* find organizational examples that illustrate each one of your chosen fallacies. Be sure to use and cite at least four different references in your paper. *at least two must come from an ad or paper article or media other than the book

36 Week 2 Team Assignment Create a Learning Team Charter.
Problem Analysis Project Summary Each Learning Team will select a work related problem, preferably one that a Learning Team member is experiencing at his/her workplace. This problem will be the focus of all of the Learning Team’s deliverables. Each week an assignment related to this final project is due. These are the deliverables: Week Two Deliverable - Part I: Problem Analysis Summary Week Three Deliverable - Part II: Problem Analysis Paper and Presentation Week Four Deliverable - Part III: Problem Analysis and Decision-Making Technique Paper Week Five Deliverable - Part IV: Problem Analysis Final Project: Implementation and Evaluation Plan Part I: Problem Analysis Summary Select a work related problem preferably one that a Learning Team member is experiencing at his/her workplace. Prepare a word summary paper that identifies and clearly states the problem. This problem needs to be sufficiently focused to use as a cumulative Learning Team assignment over the next four weeks. In your problem analysis be sure to address the following issues: Brief background of the problem. What was the triggering event that exposed the problem? The applicable components of Critical Thinking.

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