Presentation on theme: "Review for Enlightenment Test. What did the Major Enlightenment Philosophers think? PlatoAristotleHobbes This Greek feared democracy and believed government."— Presentation transcript:
What did the Major Enlightenment Philosophers think? PlatoAristotleHobbes This Greek feared democracy and believed government should be ruled by an intelligent philosopher-king This Greek philosopher believed that humans reach their highest potential in organized society and government He believed people were wicked, so you needed a strong government to protect people from themselves. MontesquieuWollstonecraftDiderot This French political thinker, who wrote The Spirit of Laws, established the idea of “separation of powers,” used in our constitution today This person argued that women should participate equally with men both in home and civic life. This person wrote the first major Encyclopedia- it took over 27 years LockeVoltaireRousseau Thomas Jefferson used the phrase “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” in the Declaration of Independence. The idea came from this person. This person mocked the French Monarchy, noblemen and the Church using satires This person argued that only through a direct democracy could people’s freedom be protected
The Enlightened Despots, and Absolute Monarchs Queen Elizabeth I King Louis XIVCatherine the Great This Ruler of England believed in “Divine Right of Kings.” Did not like Enlightenment This French leader also believed in “Divine Right of Kings” This Russian ruler built school and hospitals, promoted education of women and extended religious tolerance Maria TheresaJoseph IIFrederick II This Austrian ruler reformed the tax system by making nobles and clergy pay taxes, also elementary education for all This Austrian ruler, and son of Maria Theresa, was a radical reformer who ended censorship, and abolished serfdom. Prussian King, who outlawed torture, allowed religious tolerance and promoted education.
What are the Types of Government? DictatorshipTheocracyAbsolute Monarchy Rule by one person. Usually comes to power by force. Used in Cuba and North Korea today. Religious leaders rule in this country. Used in Iran. King or queen rules. Power is unlimited- no restrictions in what they can do. Common in the Middle Ages Constitutional Monarchy Presidential Democracy Parliamentary Democracy In this system the king/queen are symbols- they have no real power. The people hold power. Used in England today Systems where the people vote for the executive. The executive branch and legislative branch are separate. Used in US. System where citizens vote for the legislature, which then chooses the executive. Legislative branch and executive branch are joined. Leader is the Prime Minister. Used in England today
The Writings of the Enlightenment The English Letters LeviathanThe Social Contract Voltaire wrote this book after he was exiled from France. It describes the nation he was exiled to. Thomas Hobbes wrote this book that stated we need a strong central government to protect people from themselves Jean Jacque Rousseau wrote this book that stated that people needed to give up some freedoms to benefit all of society
General Questions Where did the Enlightenment generally take place? What century did the enlightenment take place? What is an Enlightened Despot? Why would dictators and absolute monarchs feel threatened by writers who encourage independent thought? You will have to write two essays:
Possible Essay Question #1 What is the Enlightenment? When did it occur? Where did it occur? What did this new thought replace? What did it lead to?
Possible Essay Question #2 Name an enlightenment thinker and discuss their role in changing society into the modern day world.
Possible Essay Question #3 What is an enlightened despot? Name one and describe some of the things they did for their empire/country.
Possible Essay Question #4 What did the Scientific revolution have to do with the start of enlightenment?