Week 1_SHEN Teaching Model Preparation: 1. familiarity with the text 1. familiarity with the text 2. variety of teaching material 2. variety of teaching material 3. anticipation of students ’ response 3. anticipation of students ’ response Class organization: Student contribution:
Week 1_SHEN Conclusion Well-designed textbook 1. mastery of language 1. mastery of language 2. reading skills 2. reading skills 3. cultural and moral education 3. cultural and moral education 4. critical thinking 4. critical thinking
Week 1_SHEN Lesson 1 Thinking as a Hobby By William Golding
Week 1_SHEN Beyond the leopard was a n________, m__________ gentleman, who sat, looking down, with his ____________ and his _____________. He seemed u________ miserable.
Week 1_SHEN Mr. Houghton thought with his NECK What does Houghton’s neck stand for? Which part of your body do you think with?
Week 1_SHEN Quotations 1. The famous star Jackie Chan uses this brand of hair shampoo and his hair is gorgeous. I’d like to try it too. 2. Man is Creation’s masterpiece; but who says so? ----Elbert Hubbard ----Elbert Hubbard 3. The great masses of the people…will more easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small one. ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1933 ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1933 4. Learning without thought is labor lost. ------ Confucius ------ Confucius
Week 1_SHEN Summary Grade-threeGrade-twoGrade-one nature proportion behavior consequen ce
Week 1_SHEN Grade-threeGrade-twoGrade-one nature prejudiced, ignorant, hypocritical mocking, satirical, cynical Moral,LogicalTruth-seeking proportion9/10fewerfewest behaviorStampede Group together Withdraw, Lag behind Stick to truth, Dare to lose consequen ce Dangerous Destructive but not constructive Constructivecreative
Week 1_SHEN Remorselessly: unstoppably The wind blows remorselessly. The wind blows remorselessly. a remorseless pursuit a remorseless pursuit Ruthlessly: determinedly investigate the case ruthlessly investigate the case ruthlessly Furiously: fiercely, with a lot of energy I read furiously in my first year of college. I read furiously in my first year of college.
Week 1_SHEN Difficult sentences There is a kind of innocence in prejudices. Because grade-thinkers are often unaware of their prejudices (they believe sincerely they are doing the right thing), they cannot be blamed for making deliberately a wrong judgment. Because grade-thinkers are often unaware of their prejudices (they believe sincerely they are doing the right thing), they cannot be blamed for making deliberately a wrong judgment.
Week 1_SHEN paraphrasing “I no longer dismiss lightly a mental process which for nine tenths of the population is the nearest they will ever get to thought.” 1. 9/10 of the population does grade-3 thinking. 2. It is the best they can do in terms of thinking. 3. I’ve learned not to ignore grade-3 thinking because….
Week 1_SHEN I would dust Venus and put her aside, for I have come to love her and know her for the fair thing she is. But I would put the Thinker, sunk in his desperate thought, where there were shadows before him – and at his back, I would put the leopard, crouched and ready to spring.
Week 1_SHEN, “His work is characterized by exploration of 'the darkness of man's heart', deep spiritual and ethical questions.” the Author William Golding (1911 – 1993), British writer, 1983 Nobel Prize Winner
Week 1_SHEN His best-known work: Lord of the Flies (1954) About a group of small British boys who lapse into violence after they have been stranded on a desert island and lost all adult guidance. Ironically the adult world is...
Week 1_SHEN Questions for discussion Golding obviously does not think highly of mass wisdom or set institutions and conventions. Do you think he has good grounds? What good can grade-1 thinking bring us since it is so costly/perilous? Do you think it’s possible to be a grade-1 thinker?
Week 1_SHEN We think so because other people all think so; or because – or because – after all we do think so; or because we were told so, and think we must think so; or because we once thought so, and think we still think so; or because, having thought so, we think we will think so… -------Henry Sidgwick -------Henry Sidgwick
Week 1_SHEN "God gave us two ends. One to sit on and one to think with. Success depends on which one you use; heads you win -- tails, you lose."
Lead-in What are the three grades of thinking? Can you offer an example for each of them (e.g. historical figures, fictional characters or real people in your life)? What do the three statuettes symbolize separately? How do the three ways of arrangement (para. 9, 34, 48) reflect the three levels of thinking? How would you arrange them to reflect your own moral, coherent, logical system of living? Why does the author include the episode of his encounter with Einstein? Does it help you understand what first grade thinking is? If not, what is his purpose? Why does Golding structure his essay as a narrative? How would you write an essay about “three grades of thinking” instead? Which style may have the better effect?
Week 1_SHEN 4. 5. 6. The trouble with the world is that the stupid are cocksure and the intelligent are full of doubt. ~ Bertrand Russell
Week 1_SHEN 7. 以铜镜为鉴，可以正衣冠， 以人为鉴，可以知 得失，以史为鉴，可以知兴替。 8. The great masses of the people…will more easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small one. ~ Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1933 9. Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fail because the masses are always ready to defend their most precious possession – their ignorance. ~ Hendrik Van Loon
Week 1_SHEN 10. A rich man is slave to his possessions. In order to obtain a quantity of false goods he has sold the only true, lasting good, his own independence. -------- Diogenes -------- Diogenes 11. We think so because other people all think so; or because – or because – after all we do think so; or because we were told so, and think we must think so; or because we once thought so, and think we still think so; or because, having thought so, we think we will think so… -------Henry Sidgwick -------Henry Sidgwick 12.Learning without thought is labor lost. ------- Confucius
Week 1_SHEN Role-playing Describe the statue of Rodin’s Thinker from the perspectives of three grades of thinkers.
Week 1_SHEN Wrap-up ： CT Analysing by considering the ELEMENTS: Point of view – Purpose – Question at issue – Concepts – Information – Interpretation and inference – Assumptions – Implications and consequences –
Week 1_SHEN ASSIGNMENT Produce a SEE-I on the topic of : I think it is _____________ to become a grade-one thinker. I think it is _____________ to become a grade-one thinker. ! Come to the class with your SEE-I on Friday ! Statement Elaboration Exemplification illustration
Week 1_SHEN Lord of the Flies (movie: directed by Peter Brook)
Week 1_SHEN At the Nobel Prize Reception "Twenty-five years ago I accepted the label 'pessimist' thoughtlessly without realising that it was going to be tied to my tail… Critics have dug into my books until they could come up with something that looked hopeless. I can't think why. I don't feel hopeless myself… Under some critical interrogation I named myself a universal pessimist but a cosmic optimist…” To listen to his Nobel lecture, please visit http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1983/ golding-lecture.html
Week 1_SHEN To know more about the writer, please visit: http://www.william- golding.co.uk/http://www.william- golding.co.uk/
Week 1_SHEN Objectives Theme: - - What are the three grades of thinking? - What is the purpose of the article?
Week 1_SHEN Style -- contrast in style between the two parts: -- contrast in style between the two parts: -- humor, sarcasm, self-mockery -- humor, sarcasm, self-mockery -- parallel structures -- parallel structures -- simile, metaphor & metonymy -- simile, metaphor & metonymy
Week 1_SHEN Detailed Study Section I (Para. 1 – Para. 15) At the headmaster’s office
Week 1_SHEN Don’t you ever think at all? Then you’d better learn – hadn’t you? That’s what a man looks like when he’s really thinking.
Week 1_SHEN Why was he a frequent visitor to the headmaster’s study? (because of the latest thing I had done or left undone) What would he do when he found himself in a penal position before the headmaster’s desk? (sink his head, writhe his shoe, stare down at the worn rug) What would he see when he was demanded to look up? Comprehension Qs
Week 1_SHEN …frozen in an eternal panic lest… …in an unfortunate position to… …busy being … Next to her, crouched …, ready to … Beyond the leopard was … He seemed ______ly miserable.
Humor Defamiliarization: a technique by which the writer disrupts our habitual perception of the world and enables us to see things afresh. a technique by which the writer disrupts our habitual perception of the world and enables us to see things afresh.
Humor (2) Exaggeration: para. 9 para. 9 “contemplate”, “hindquarters” “contemplate”, “hindquarters” “inspecting the universe” “inspecting the universe”
Week 1_SHEN Why couldn’t he communicate with the headmaster? (nothing human behind the headmaster’s spectacles when they caught the light) What was the conclusion he came to in the end? (he couldn’t think – something missing in him; others claimed they could think; there were three grades of thinking) What does the story between the headmaster and the boy tell us?
Week 1_SHEN Mr. Houghton Now, boys! Deep breaths! Feel it right down inside you – huge draughts of God’s good air!
Week 1_SHEN Comprehension Qs What he claimed Telling me to think He had thought a bit himself. Always talking about the clean life and the virtues of fresh air. High-minded monologues about the good life, sexless and full of duty. What he did Heavy drinking Health ruined Unaccustomed to fresh air Watching girls out of sight Settled detestation of France & America What kind of person was Mr. Houghton? Conclusion: He thought with his neck. (irrational, illogical, hypocritical, biased …)
Week 1_SHEN He would stand before us, put his hands on his waist and take a ___________breath. You could hear the wind, _________in his chest and ______________with all the unnatural ________________. His body would _________with shock and his face _______white at the unaccustomed _____________. He would __________back to his desk and ___________there, __________ for the rest of the morning. tremendous trapped struggling impediments reel go visitationstagger collapse useless Check on Preview
Week 1_SHEN Three statuettes introduction of the subject; foreshadowing introduction of the subject; foreshadowing The headmaster the purpose of the article: how to educate people to think the purpose of the article: how to educate people to think Mr. Houghton a living example of grade-three thinker a living example of grade-three thinker How I started to think; my first step towards thinking Sum-up
Week 1_SHEN Additional question: In the original essay, Golding mentioned he later changed the positions of the three statuettes and also told us if he had had chance again, he would have rearranged them in a different way. Besides the humorous effect, does it imply anything else? How would you arrange the three statuettes?
Week 1_SHEN Homework Discussion: Provide an example of each grade of thinking. Paraphrasing: often there is a kind of innocence in prejudices. often there is a kind of innocence in prejudices. I no longer dismiss lightly… to thought. (24) I no longer dismiss lightly… to thought. (24)
Week 1_SHEN How did the author deal with grade-three thinkers at first? Did he changed his idea about this group of people later? What do you think happened in his encounter with the pious lady?
Week 1_SHEN Sum-up Grade-3 thinking: - prejudice - prejudice - ignorance - ignorance - hypocrisy - hypocrisy “feeling” “feeling” rather than rather than “thought” “thought” Grade-3 thinkers: - majority - majority - solidarity - solidarity - dangerousness - dangerousness cows cows grazing grazing the same way the same way
Week 1_SHEN Grade- 3 thinkers Grade- 3 thinkers Majority Self-contradiction Stampede, jump on the bandwagon Stampede Delight in their solidarity Innocent stupidity Grade- 2 thinkers MMMMinority the contradictions LLLLag behind, withdraw from the crowd DDDDelight in laughing at others DDDDestruction without construction What kind of follies and contradictions did the author detect? Para. 25
Week 1_SHEN “But the Catholic’s Vulgate is also literally inspired. So which is true, which is false?” “The Bible was literally inspired. It was written in God’s exact words. So it must be true.”
Week 1_SHEN There were an awful lot of Methodists, and they couldn’t be wrong, could they – not all those millions? If we were counting heads, the Buddhists were the boys for my money. The combination of my arm & those countless Buddhists was too much for her.
Week 1_SHEN What is wrong with Ruth’s claim? jumping onto the bandwagon jumping onto the bandwagon What lessons can we draw from William’s failed romance with Ruth?
Week 1_SHEN The price for being a grade-2 thinker… IIIIt “could be costly as well as fun”. IIIIt “did not make for content”. IIIIt “satisfies the young ego but does not make for personal security” IIIIt “took the swimmer out of his depth”. IIIIt asks “what is truth?” and stops there.
Week 1_SHEN Pontius Pilate as a typical grade-2 thinker Pontius Pilate Roman Governor Roman Governor of of Judaea Judaea ( 26—37 A.D.) ( 26—37 A.D.)
Week 1_SHEN "Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Everyone that is of the truth heareth my voice. " (John 18:37) "What is truth?" and left without waiting for the answer. Cynical indifference
Week 1_SHEN declined in interest, became dull Argument flagged. (Para. 26) Definition: Language study Do you still remember Russell Baker’s mother, who needed a pep talk to recharge her flagging spirit? An awful flicker of doubt appeared in her eyes. Collocation: Interest, appetite, conversation Synonyms: waver, flutter, tremble A brief or slight sensation Collocation: shadows, leaves, candles
Week 1_SHEN Fisch. Fisch. Ja. Ja. Here’s a real grade-one thinker! How I aspire to them!
Week 1_SHEN Why did the author decide to become a grade- one thinker? What is the suggestion of the meeting between him and Einstein? What might be grade-one thinking like? Comprehension Qs system moralliving logical unconventional
Week 1_SHEN Can you give any examples of grade-1 thinking? What are the prices for grade-one thinking?
Week 1_SHEN Can you think of any examples of these three grades of thinking in our history? grade-3: grade-3: grade-2: grade-2: grade-1: grade-1:
Week 1_SHEN Essay Question Choose one topic to write an essay of about 400 words. Give a brief description of the three grades of thinking with your own illustrations. What kind of thinker are you? (Analyze the thoughts you have had on a recent issue, and explain why those thoughts result from grade-one, grade-two, or grade-three thinking.) “I think it is ____________ to be a grade- one thinker”
Week 1_SHEN Group discussion What kind of thinker are you? How can we develop a habit of thinking?
Week 1_SHEN Paraphrasing Grade-two thinking is a withdrawal (from what?), with eyes and ears open (for what?). grade-two thinkers detach themselves from the crowd, while keeping alert for detecting their mistakes. They are on-lookers and commentators of others’ behavior. grade-two thinkers detach themselves from the crowd, while keeping alert for detecting their mistakes. They are on-lookers and commentators of others’ behavior. But there are compensations (for what? In what way?). though being a grade-two thinker I suffer from my inability to find any useful solutions, I can make up by finding some fun out of others’ follies. though being a grade-two thinker I suffer from my inability to find any useful solutions, I can make up by finding some fun out of others’ follies.
Week 1_SHEN Summary: blank-filling I discovered that grade-three thinking is often full of ________ prejudice, ignorance and hypocrisy. More properly, it is ________, rather than thought. But it is not to be ________ lightly for it engages nine tenths of the population. They have immense ________. We had better respect them, for we are _________ and surrounded. unconscious feeling dismissed solidarity outnumbered (5min)
Week 1_SHEN Grade-two thinking is the ___________ of contradictions. Grade-two thinkers do not _______ easily, though often they fall into the other fault and _____ behind. Grade- two thinking is a __________. It without having the power to. Grade-two thinking is the ___________ of contradictions. Grade-two thinkers do not _______ easily, though often they fall into the other fault and _____ behind. Grade- two thinking is a __________. It destroys without having the power to create. Grade-two thinking, though it filled life with fun and excitement, did not bring ________. To find out the _________ of our elders satisfies the young ____ but does not make _______ personal security. detection stampede lag withdrawal content deficiencies ego
Week 1_SHEN These grade-one thinkers were few and ___________. They did not visit my grammar school in the ______ though they were there in books. I ________ to them, because I now saw my hobby as an unsatisfactory thing if it went no _________. I therefore decided that I would be a grade-one thinker. I ________ in the end with what must always remain the ___________ for grade-one thinking. I ________ a coherent system for living. It was a moral system, which was wholly ______. far between flesh aspired further came up devised logical justification
Week 1_SHEN Language study 1. 1. Since she had no arms, she was ___ an unfortunate ______ to pull the towel up again. 2.Whenever I found myself in a ________ position, I would… 3. I was not integrated. I was, ________, disintegrated. 4.Nature had ______ the rest of the human race ____ a sixth sense and let me out. 1.She was not generous. She was, ________, rather miserly. 2. Everyone is ___________ some talent. We only have to find it out on our own. 3. According to Rachel Carson, man is the only species that is ________ to alter the nature of his world. in position in a position if anything endowed with endowed with penal
Week 1_SHEN Language study 1. 1.Mr. Houghton was _________ high-minded monologues. 2. 2.I ___________ the grade-one thinkers. 3. 3.In the prewar days, I ___________ lose a great deal.. 1.We all ___________ a good command of English. 2.He ____________ stardom (= he aspired to _________ a star). 3.He was __________ blushing in front the teacher. 4.We ___________ make lots of money out of the deal. 5.Harry potter knows that he has friends who’d ________ him whatever happens. 6.I want to know what she ___________ before I vote for her. stand to stand by stands for
Week 1_SHEN Additional translation Slip 我脚一滑，差点摔倒。 我脚一滑，差点摔倒。 My foot slipped and I nearly fell. My foot slipped and I nearly fell. 这几周在不知不觉中就溜走了。 这几周在不知不觉中就溜走了。 These few weeks slipped by. These few weeks slipped by. 恐怖分子混过了机场的安检系统。 恐怖分子混过了机场的安检系统。 The terrorists had slipped through the airport’s security net. The terrorists had slipped through the airport’s security net. 在火车上为了补个硬卧，我朋友塞了点钱给他。 在火车上为了补个硬卧，我朋友塞了点钱给他。 My friend slipped him some money on the train in order to get a hard berth. My friend slipped him some money on the train in order to get a hard berth.
Week 1_SHEN 对不起，我错过你的生日了，我完全忘了。 对不起，我错过你的生日了，我完全忘了。 I’m sorry I missed your birthday; it completely slipped my mind. I’m sorry I missed your birthday; it completely slipped my mind. 你不会错过那样的好机会吧，是吗？ 你不会错过那样的好机会吧，是吗？ You’re not going to let a chance like that slip through your fingers, are you? You’re not going to let a chance like that slip through your fingers, are you? 她无意中说出她准备离开这个公司。 她无意中说出她准备离开这个公司。 She let slip that she’s going to leave the company. (to let slip that / to slip out ) She let slip that she’s going to leave the company. (to let slip that / to slip out ) n. a slip of paper; a slip of tongue / pen; a woman’s slip （衬裙） n. a slip of paper; a slip of tongue / pen; a woman’s slip （衬裙）
Week 1_SHEN Learning without thought is labor lost. -- Confucius Man is but a reed, the most feeble thing in nature, but he is a thinking reed ( 一株会思考 的芦苇 ). -- Blaise Pascal Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours. -- John Locke
Week 1_SHEN "God gave us two ends. One to sit on and one to think with. Success depends on which one you use; heads you win -- tails, you lose."
Beelzebub Christian myth, one of the powerful seraphim first recruited by Satan. He became associated with flies because he had sent a plague of the insects to Canaan. He may also have become known as the "Lord of the Flies" because of the popular belief that decaying corpses generated flies. when summoned by sorcerers or witches, he would appear in the form of a fly, a gargantuan cow, or a male goat with a long tail. He had a tendency to vomit flames if he was angered