Presentation on theme: "S IGMUND F REUD By: Carolina Duron Psychology 10-E."— Presentation transcript:
S IGMUND F REUD By: Carolina Duron Psychology 10-E
T HE B EGINNING Freud was always top of his class, teachers referred to him as a genius boy, with a wide range of intelligence. Ernst Brucke gave a young Freud his first job, where he became interested on studying neurophysiology. In 1881 he received his medical degree, since he was engaged he reluctantly took a stable job as a doctor in the Vienna General Hospital. His marriage being happy gave Freud 6 children, the youngest Anna became a well-known psychoanalyst herself.
S IGMUND F REUD ALL THROUGH TIME … Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material on which he based his theories and his pioneering techniques. Before Brucke had helped him go into a special selection of studies and a job, Freud had invented a cell-staining technique in neurology. This helped him later on in his career when writing his different books. When Freud visited Paris he became interested in the idea of hypnosis and working with cases of hysteria although he had never though about it himself, Freud witnessed many of the actual hypnosis tests.
Charcot, a French neurologist introduced the idea of hypnosis for hysteria cases and other abnormal mental conditions. When Freud came back to Vienna he did some experiments with hypnosis yet he found that its effects didn’t last long enough to actually help his studies or the purpose of the experiment.
F REUD AND HIS INSPIRATIONS Although Freud has been considered a classical and an original thinker, his different works were products of his childhood or any given past trauma. With this in mind its easy to understand how his book “ The Interpretation of Dreams” is based on the very hard time he had when his father died. Two other famous thinkers that helped Freud from time to time, (though never away from the Freudian way of thinking ) Charcot and Breuer inspired Freud to think outside the box and even consider factors he would have never called important with science, such as his past marriage or past jobs, and the places they occurred in.
T HE RESULTS After self-analyzing himself for many times, Freud learned that in real life he had fantasies and phobias he never considered real. He then found out that in his youth he had many times fantasized that his half-brother was really his father. He also found out other underlying meaning of this little fantasy he had apparently thought and held on too for a great part of his youth. He then realized that he wished his father dead because he was rival for his mothers love. All of this then became the beginning of the Oedipus complex. In which a child kills one parents to have a life with the other.
THEORIES Freud was not the creator of the conscious or unconscious mind but one of his most famous and still used theories about it were the most popular in its time. Back in the nineteenth century it wasn't very well thought of to think about how the beha- vior of every human been was controlled by mental processes, either by the conscious or the unconscious mind. He studied a wide range of ideas about it, and set out to get an explanation to what really happens and how everything works inside a person mind and way of thinking.
T HE CONSCIOUS MIND, WHAT YOU ARE AWARE OF, MEMORIES, THOUGHTS, FANTASIES. T HE PRECONSCIOUS, MEMORIES FEELINGS CLOSELY RELATED AND AFFECTING THE CONSCIOUS MIND. T HE UNCONSCIOUS, THINGS, THOUGHTS, DRIVES, IDEAS, TRAUMAS THAT HAVE THEIR ORIGINS THERE OUR MOTIVATIONS DON ' T MATTER THEY ARE JUST WHAT OUR MINDS KNOWS IT NEEDS. Inside the unconscious is the id, mostly known as the needs, the nervous system of person, given since birth. Then in the conscious there sis the ego, in time the id becomes and ego, and only thinks about what the organism wants and when it wants it. The super ego works in the middle giving warnings and advice about certain courses of action. This also includes the life and death instincts creating the humans natural creation to fear.
ANXIETY According to Freud anxiety had a mayor role in a persons life. To begin with anxiety was to be afraid, to feel threatened, overwhelmed by something. Anything! Anxiety can be divided according to Freud, there are three types of anxiety, there is realistic anxiety( which might be known as simple fear, a little off, but still a sense of uneasiness), there is moral anxiety( these means that the fear, uneasiness, and threat a person feels is coming from and internal threat not from the outside world), and there is the neurotic anxiety( here people are afraid to loose control in emotions, these are impulses form the id.)
As you can see many classifications have a very specific type of distinguishing itself. Depending on the way person thought of themselves or of other people psychotherapists such as Freud could determine what type of anxiety his or her patient was suffering from. Now these aren't original Freudian ideas but Freud was the first one to actually base his studies and to use these ideas in all his analysis and in his ways of thinking.
BIOGRAPHY Bettelheim, B. Freud and Man’s Soul. Knopf, Cavell, M. The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Harvard University Press, Chessick, R.D. Freud Teaches Psychotherapy. Hackett Publishing Company, Cioffi, F. (ed.) Freud: Modern Judgements. Macmillan, Dilman, I. Freud and the Mind. Blackwell, Edelson, M. Hypothesis and Evidence in Psychoanalysis. University of Chicago Press, Fancher, R. Psychoanalytic Psychology: The Development of Freud’s Thought. Norton, Farrell, B.A. The Standing of Psychoanalysis. Oxford University Press, Freeman, L. The Story of Anna O. – The Woman who led Freud to Psychoanalysis. Paragon House, Frosh, S. The Politics of Psychoanalysis: An Introduction to Freudian and Post-Freudian Theory. Yale University Press, Grünbaum, A. The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique. University of California Press, Hook, S. (ed.) Psychoanalysis, Scientific Method, and Philosophy. New York University Press, Jones, E. Sigmund Freud: Life and Work (3 vols), Basic Books, Klein, G.S. Psychoanalytic Theory: An Exploration of Essentials. International Universities Press, MacIntyre, A.C. The Unconscious: A Conceptual Analysis. Routledge & Kegan Paul, Freud. Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 3 (ed. P. Edwards). Collier Macmillan, Mackay, N. Motivation and Explanation: An Essay on Freud’s Philosophy of Science. International Universities Press, Masson, J. The Assault on Truth: Freud’s Suppression of the Seduction Theory. Faber & Faber, 1984.
Popper, K. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson, Pendergast, M. Victims of Memory. HarperCollins, Reiser, M. Mind, Brain, Body: Towards a Convergence of Psychoanalysis and Neurobiology. Basic Books, Ricoeur, P. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay in Interpretation (trans. D. Savage). Yale University Press, Schafer, R. A New Language for Psychoanalysis. Yale University Press, Sherwood, M. The Logic of Explanation in Psychoanalysis. Academic Press, Stewart, W. Psychoanalysis: The First Ten Years, Macmillan, Sulloway, F. Freud, Biologist of the Mind. Basic Books, Thornton, E.M. Freud and Cocaine: The Freudian Fallacy. Blond & Briggs, Wallace, E.R. Freud and Anthropology: A History and Reappraisal. International Universities Press, Whyte, L.L. The Unconscious Before Freud. Basic Books, Wollheim, R. Freud. Fontana, Wollheim, R. (ed.) Freud: A Collection of Critical Essays. Anchor, Wollheim, R. & Hopkins, J. (eds.) Philosophical Essays on Freud. Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Freud's work is preserved in a 23 volume set called The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. For a briefer overview, you might want to try Freud's A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis or New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. They are a part of The Standard Edition, but can also be found separately and in paperback. Or you might try a collection, such as The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud. Some of Freud's most interesting works are The Interpretation of Dreams, his own favorite, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, about Freudian slips and other day-to-day oddities, Totem and Taboo, Freud's views on our beginnings, Civilization and Its Discontents, his pessimistic commentary on modern society, and The Future of an Illusion, on religion. All are a part of The Standard Edition, but all are available as separate paperbacks as well. The father of psychoanalysis has been psychoanalyzed many times. First, there is his official biography, by his student Ernest Jones. More recent is a biography by Peter Gay. A highly critical account of Freud's work is Jeffrey Masson's The Assault on Truth. The best book I've come across on Freud and the entire psychoanalytic movement is Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis, by George Makari. The commentary on and criticism of Freud's work is unending! tp://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html