Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10: The First Global Age,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch. 10: The First Global Age, 1400-1800 Mr. ChavezWorld HistoryFall 2014
2 10.3: The Growth of State Power-Absolute Rule in Europe As the world expanded, the power of states and empires also grewBetween the 16th and 18th centuries, many monarchs (kings) centralized power and authorityThis form of rule was known as absolutismAbsolute monarchs claimed that their right to rule came from GodThis notion of God-given authority was known as divine right
3 10.3: The Growth of State Power-Absolute Rule in Europe European monarchs backed up their rule with military forceThey wanted to secure their borders and expand their area of controlThey used modernized weaponry based on gunpowder technology from ChinaThey developed canons for land and seaDeveloped new methods to fortify artillery attacksMonarchs paid for their new military power by raising taxes and bank loansGunpowderRevolution!
4 10.3: The Growth of State Power-Gunpowder Empires Gunpowder revolution took place in Europe, eastern Europe and AsiaStrong states used gunpowder weapons to conquer territory and build large empiresThe Ottoman Turks built one of the most powerful empiresThey relied on well-trained armies and heavily artilleryOttoman Turks created a centralized state to support their empireTheir complex system of managing their government was also known as a ________________BUREAUCRACY
6 Sunni Modern Day Turkey Majority of Turkish people are Muslim. Can you guess which branch of Islam?Sunni
7 10.3: The Growth of State Power-Gunpowder Empires To the north, Russia also built a powerful state empire
8 10.3: The Growth of State Power-Gunpowder Empires In Persia, the Safavid Empire arose in 1501 and collapsed in 1722Their greatest ruler, Shah Abbas, built a strong centralized state and promoted art and architectureThis branch of Islam was practiced in this empire: ________________.The Mughal Empire spread across Central Asia and IndiaLasted from 1526 to 1707Also had a strong central governmentGovernment grew rich from trading cotton and spicesShi’a
10 10.3: The Growth of State Power-Emerging European Dominance Despite their success, most of the gunpowder empires declined by the late 1700sSafavid, Ottoman, MughalIn contrast, Europe was getting stronger1 major factor: Commercial RevolutionRapid expansion of businessFueled by overseas trade and colonizationGave rise to early forms of capitalismEuropean states became extremely wealthy as a resultIncreased their military and political powerEconomic, Political, Social, and Cultural factors helped Europe rise to power once more
12 Now It’s Your Turn!Answer the following questions in complete sentences.Title it Now It’s Your TurnWrite your responses on the back of your notes1. Describe 2 ways that monarchs centralized their power.2. How did the Commercial Revolution make Europe powerful?
13 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Colonization of the Americas By establishing American colonies, western European countries…Built new empiresCreated new networks of exchangeNew colonies had both positive and negative effects on the rest of the worldSpain and Portugal established first American coloniesSpain colonized North and South America in the 1500sPortugal colonized Brazil in the 1500s_________________ defeated the Aztec and Inca empiresBrought millions of Indians under their controlConquistadors
14 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Colonization of the Americas Social structure of the Spanish colonies was largely based on raceWhite colonists made up the top social classThey enjoyed the most power and privilegesNext were _______________: mixed race descendants of Europeans and IndianAt the bottom were native Indians; later black AfricansMestizos
15 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Colonization of the Americas The Catholic Church also played an important role in colonial societyThe spread of Catholic beliefs was a prime motive of the Spanish conquest
17 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Economies of Silver Silver mining became the main economic activity in the Spanish coloniesSpanish forced Indians to work in the minesSilver had an enormous impact on the world economyMade into coins and increased world money supplyResulted in ________________: rising prices, usually caused by an increase in money supplyThe plantation system:Spanish crown granted colonists large estates, stripping away land from IndiansPlantations grew: sugar, tobacco, cacao, cotton, etc..inflation
18 10.4: Atlantic Empires: A Continental Exchange Exchange of goods between the Old World and the New WorldThis was also known as the _____________________: the transfer of plants, animals and diseases between the Eastern and Western hemispheresColumbian ExchangeThe Columbian Exchange also had negative effectsWorst of all, Old World diseases spread rapidly, with deadly effects on Indian populations
20 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Death and Slavery Old World diseases killed at least 50% of the native populationAmounted to tens of millions of peopleThis event is called the ________________.The spread of disease made the European conquest of the Americas much easierLess Indians to resist European colonistsAlso, less Indians to work the landEuropeans started to import African slaves as a resultGreat Dying
21 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Death and Slavery Slavery has existed since ancient timesGreeks, Romans and Arabs had all used slaves beforeMajor were prisoners of warThe first African slaves were bought by Portugal in the mid-1400sBy the mid-1500s, most European countries were in the practice of buying slaves as wellBy the 1800s, more than ten million African slaves had been shipped to the AmericasApproximately 1 out of every 6 died en route to the Americas (approximately 2 million)The journey from Africa to the Americas was known as the middle passage
22 10.4: Atlantic Empires: Death and Slavery The slave trade had a major impact on AfricaSlavery destroyed many African societiesIt strengthened African warlords who sold slavesIt introduced European goods, including guns to AfricaThe slave trade had a greater impact on the AmericasSlavery supported the plantation system which was violent and brutalLeft a legacy of racism and inequality that still exists today
24 10.5: Movement of Religion & Ideas: Spreading Faith in the Americas As regions became more connected, ideas and religious beliefs spread more rapidly from place to placeMovement of ideas and religion also helped transform the worldColonization of the Americas brought 2 LARGE continents into the Christian worldCatholic priests converted millions of Indians to ChristianityMany/most were converted forcefullyIn most cases, Indians blended Christian teachings with their own traditional beliefsCatholic missionaries spread the faith into Africa and Asia
25 10.5: Movement of Religion and Ideas: New Ideas in Europe New ideas and ways of thinking arose in EuropeArtist and thinkers of the __________________, revived classical art and culture.They promoted ______________, a belief in the value of the individualThis new way of thinking paved the way for the ____________, which split the Catholic Church and gave birth to new Protestant religionsRenaissanceHumanismReformation
26 10.5: Movement of Religion and Ideas: New Ideas in Europe The printing press was crucial to the ReformationAnd to ideas in generalPrinting technology invented by China in the 11th centuryGerman metalworker, Johannes Gutenberg advanced the technology in 1450His printing press could print 300 pages in one dayPrinting became faster and more efficient
27 10.5: Movement of Religion and Ideas: New Ideas in Europe This movement sought to revive Catholicism in response to the Reformation: _________________The church expanded its missionary work in the new coloniesScholars and thinkers, inspired by the Renaissance, began to study the natural world in new waysThis new approach to learning was called ______________Began in the mid-1500s and lasted through the 1600sBeginning in the 1700s, this movement sought to apply scientific methods to the study of society and its problems_________________________Counter-ReformationScientific RevolutionEnlightenment
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