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Chapter Four Individual Differences and Traits. Individual Differences Framework Heredity Genes Race/Ethnicity Gender Environment Culture & education.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Four Individual Differences and Traits. Individual Differences Framework Heredity Genes Race/Ethnicity Gender Environment Culture & education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Four Individual Differences and Traits

2 Individual Differences Framework Heredity Genes Race/Ethnicity Gender Environment Culture & education Parental Influence Physical Environment Leadership Style and Behaviors INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS Values Personality Demographic factors Abilities and Skills

3 Individual Characteristics and Behaviors Individual characteristics Comfort Zone Zone of Discomfort Zone of Discomfort BEHAVIORAL RANGE

4 Fresh Look at Traits Some traits are a precondition to leadership, but not enough to predict leadership:  Drive (motivation, energy)  Motivation to lead  Integrity  Self-confidence  Intelligence  Knowledge of the business

5 Demographic Characteristics  U.S. leaders are a homogeneous group  In spite of some differences, the path to leadership is still influenced by birthplace, nationality, religion, education, social class, gender, and race  Homogeneity may affect creativity negatively

6 Values Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is worthwhile and desirable Factors that affect values include:  Culture  Personality  Gender  Ethnicity  Generational differences

7 Generational Differences in Values 60+-GI Generation: Hard work; frugality; patriotism 45-60 – Baby Boomers: Non-conformity; idealism; happiness and peace 35-50 – Baby Busters: Ambition; material comfort; “me” 25-35 – Generation X: Enjoyment of life; autonomy; flexibility Under 25 - Millennials: Flexibility, choice, meaningful experiences, tolerance, tech- savvy

8 Values and Ethics The relativist view - what is right or wrong depends on the situation or the culture The universalist view - all activities should be judged by the same standards, regardless of the situation or culture

9 Abilities and Skills  Ability, or aptitude, is a stable natural talent for doing something mental or physical  A skill is an acquired talent that a person develops related to a specific task

10 Abilities: Cognitive and Practical Intelligence  Cognitive abilities (traditional intelligence) important but not sufficient for leadership  Practical intelligence is related to having skills needed to succeed and work with others;  probably more important to leadership

11 Emotional Intelligence  Self-awareness  Self-regulation  Self-motivation  Empathy for others  Interpersonal and social skills

12 Abilities: Creativity  Generate novel solutions/perspectives to old problems  Perseverance when facing obstacles  Self-confidence  Willingness to take risks  Willingness to grow and openness to new experiences  Tolerance for ambiguity

13 Skills  Technical skills  Interpersonal skills  Conceptual skills

14 Personality Traits  Traits are psychological characteristics  Stable over time and across situations  Personality = a set of enduring traits that distinguishes one person from another

15 Big Five Personality Traits  Conscientiousness  Extraversion/introversion  Openness to experience  Emotional stability (Neuroticism)  Agreeableness

16 Locus of Control  Internal LOC  External LOC

17 Characteristics of Individuals with Internal Locus of Control  Less anxious  Set harder goals  Manage stress and adapt to change better  More considerate of followers  Less likely to use coercive power  CEOs select riskier, more innovative strategies  Take more blame when things go wrong

18 Type A Defining Characteristics Time urgency Time urgency Competitiveness Competitiveness Polyphasic behaviors Polyphasic behaviors Hostility Hostility Work-Related Behaviors Poor delegation Like to work alone Jump into action Set high goals Hard work Perceive more stress High Need for Control

19 Characteristics of High Self-Monitors  Able to read cues from the environment  Able to change behavior to match situation  Better able to cope in cross-cultural environments  Probably a key factor in leadership effectiveness

20 MBTI Sensation Thinkers (ST) Focus on hard facts Realistic, goal-oriented but can be impatient and jump into action quickly but can be unreasonable and unaware of others Intuitive Thinkers (NT) Change agents Responsive to creativity Sensation Feelers (SF) Practical and caring Good understanding of systems but can be reluctant to accept change THINKING (T) FEELING (F) INTUITIVE (N) SENSING (S) Intuitive Feelers (NF) Personal charisma and commitment to others Many ideas, trouble with implementation

21 Machiavellian Personality  High Machs are Skilled at controlling others Able to perceive and resist manipulation More successful in unstructured environments  Low Machs are Naive and trusting  Effective Leadership is associated with moderate Mach score

22 Narcissistic Personality  Grandiose self-importance  Preoccupation with power  Arrogance  Indifference to others  Self-absorption  Fragile self-esteem; inability to tolerate criticism  Sense of entitlement  Exploiting others without guilt  Lack of empathy  Trouble building relationships

23 Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail  Abrasive and intimidating  Cold and arrogant  Untrustworthy  Self-centered and overly political  Unable to delegate

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