Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK 4/23 1.What is détente? List three key events within détente that lessened the tensions between the US and USSR (successes of détente) 2.Why did."— Presentation transcript:
BELLWORK 4/23 1.What is détente? List three key events within détente that lessened the tensions between the US and USSR (successes of détente) 2.Why did the USSR & US support détente? 3.What were the reasons for improved East-West relations in Europe? 4.What was the Helsinki Agreement? How did US/USSR respond to this? 5.List three events that led to the collapse of détente (failures of détente) 6.How did the Cold War change once Reagan was elected in 1980? 7.THINKER: Review the US intervention in Central America map (pg.159). What is the common theme of US involvement in the region? Do you think US involvement contradicts US Cold War goals? The US accused the USSR of being expansionist and trying to spread their influence…..to what extent were we doing the same thing?
BELLWORK 4/24 1.Who competed for power following Mao’s death? Outcome? 2.How did Hua Guofeng rule China? Was he effective? 3.Explain Deng’s economic policies, including the Four Modernizations. 4.Describe the causes/effects of Tiananmen Square protests. 5.THINKER: The rule of Deng Xiaoping is one of the main causes of Sino-American détente. What about Deng, or his policies, caused the US government to be more willing to open relations with China?
SINO-AMERICAN RELATIONS Cold War thermometer: From hostility (1949-1970) to détente (1970-present)
Background of Sino-American Relations WWII: US aided GMD against Japan (some aide to CCP) CCW: US aided GMD against CCP Post-CCW: US recognized ROC as legitimate China & blocked PRC in UN Other contributing factors to tension: Korea, Japan, Tibet, nuclear weapons
Sino-American Hostility: 1949-1970 The following events contributed to hostility between China & the US……… 1950’s – Tibet (1950) – Korea (1950-1953) – Taiwan (1954 & 1958) 1960’s – Vietnam – Decolonization – Cultural Revolution
Tibet The 14 th Dalai Lama: “The US supported the Tibetan movement, not because they cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments”
Korea ***Korean War caused a HUGE change in Cold War relationships: US containment policy expands to Asia US supported Taiwan (Sino-American hostilities) Stalin made China pay (Sino-Soviet hostilities) PRC economy weakened, but popularity of Mao strengthened
Korea “On the Chinese mainland 600 million people are ruled by the Chinese Communist Party. That party came to power by violence, and, so far, has lived by violence. It retains power not by the will of the Chinese people, but by massive, forcible repression. It fought the United Nations in Korea; it supported the Communist War in Indo-China; it took Tibet by force. It does not disguise its expansionist ambitions. It is bitterly hateful of the United States, which it considers a principal obstacle in the way of its path of conquest. As regards China, we have abstained from any act to encourage the Communist regime – morally, politically, or materially. Thus: we have not extended diplomatic recognition to the Chinese Communist regime. We have opposed seating in the United Nations. We have not traded with Communist China or sanctioned cultural exchanges with it.” U.S. State Department Bulletin, 15 July 1953 What claims does the U.S. State Department make about Chinese actions?
Taiwan Taiwan was of vital importance to the PRC: “Two Chinas” was unacceptable!!! Any improvement in relations could only be possible if Taiwan was no longer separate
Taiwan After Taiwan, the US now considered China an expansionist threat, so they pursued the following: – Trade embargo with PRC – Obstruction of PRC in UN – Economic/military aide to Taiwan – Aide program for entire region (Domino Theory) – SEATO created as containment bloc
Sino-American Relations: 1960’s The Sino-American Cold War reached new heights in the 1960’s because of: McCarthyism JFK’S policy of “containment & isolation” of China” US gov used failures of GLF to highlight failures of Marxism & the PRC’s willingness to sacrifice millions of its own in pursuit of communism
Vietnam War Based on this song, what do you think was the opinion of the Chinese public towards American involvement in Vietnam? Read the lyrics to this Chinese children’s song: There is an evil spirit: His name is Johnson. His mouth is all sweetness, But he has a wolf’s heart. He bombs Vietnam cities And hates the people. Chinese and Vietnamese are one family: We will certainly not agree to this! I wear a red scarf and join the demonstrations with Daddy. With small throat but large voice I shout: U.S. pirates get out, get out, get out!
Decolonization PRC supported revolutionary/decolonization movements in developing countries to replace USSR as the world leader of communism Also to end Western imperialism: – China said US was the “key problem to world peace” – US said they did not seek to overthrow PRC, but objected to their funding of global revolutions US saw the threat from China as exaggerated…..why? – Did not have the resources to make a difference in the developing world – Had nuclear weapons but no way to deliver them
Cultural Revolution GLF & CultRev led to collapse in PRC’s ability to conduct foreign policy US felt it was a clear demonstration of out- of-control fanaticism of Maoist leadership, which lacked stability PRC feared possible “regime change” by either US or USSR
Sino-American Détente: 1970-1990 The following events contributed to détente between China & the US……… 1970’s – Vietnam – United Nations – Soviet Union 1980’s – Post-Mao economic reforms
Why were the 1970’s the right time for détente? US support vs. Chinese support Change in political philosophy of US Admin: – Now understood that communist movements were not as “monolithic” as they once thought – Nixon suggested the US would now “deal with countries on the basis of their actions and not on abstract ideology.” “Once the Soviet Union could no longer count on permanent hostility between the world’s most powerful and most populous nations... The scope for Soviet stubbornness would narrow and perhaps even evaporate. Soviet leaders would have to hedge their bets because a threatening posture might intensify Sino-American cooperation. In the conditions of the late 1960’s, improved Sino-American relations became a key to the Nixon Administration’s Soviet strategy.” (Henry Kissinger) Henry Kissinger, Nixon’s Secretary of State
Ping Pong Diplomacy Secret talks between Kissinger & Zhou Enlai (1971) Nixon visits Mao (1972) – Established joint agreement to improve relations What did each of the powers gain from détente?
Nixon becomes the first US president to visit China!!!
Zhou asked a British journalist: “why shouldn’t we negotiate with President Nixon? In the past we talked with Jiang Jieshi.”
Sino-American Rapprochement & it’s effects on the Cold War PRC’s influence on the Cold War grew with nuclear status, Sino- Soviet Split & Sino-American rapprochement – Now a “tri-polar” conflict Other factors of “cooling” tensions in 1980’s: – Mao’s death – Removal of anti-American Gang of Four – Modernization initiatives of Deng Xiaoping Modern relations (post-1992)
HOMEWORK Read about China post-Mao Complete the orange note sheet