2 Objective SWBAT explain how science led to the Enlightenment SWBAT Compare the ideas of Locke and Hobbes
3 Do Now 12/6/12 Have your homework out – ready to go over Answer the following in your notes:What is the Enlightenment?How do you think events such as the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution sparked new ideas of the Enlightenment?
4 Foundations of the Enlightenment Impact of the Enlightenment BACON and DESCARTES:Reason & LogicGrowth of Secular Ideas;Importance of EducationISAAC NEWTON:Natural LawBelief in ProgressHOBBES and ROUSSEAU:The Social ContractAmerican and French Revolutions,Independence MovementsENLIGHTENMENT THOUGHTJOHN LOCKE:Natural Rights—Life, Liberty, and PropertyDeclaration of Independence, Rights of Man and Citizen, Growth of IndividualismVOLTAIRE:Religious ToleranceU.S. Bill of Rights andEnlightened MonarchiesMONESTESQUIEU:Separation of PowersFrench, U.S., and Latin American ConstitutionsBECCARIA: Reform of Criminal Justice SystemAbolishment of Torture andCapital Punishment
5 The Age of Reason Scientific Revolution Enlightenment 1700s scientists expanded European knowledge in Scientific RevolutionScientific successes created great confidence in the power of REASONIf people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws (laws that govern human nature)
6 Scientific Revolution Enlightenment With the use of REASON, Enlightenment thinkers could solve every social, political, and economic problemTwo thinkers: John Locke and Thomas HobbesPhilosophes – “lovers of wisdom”Enlightenment thinkers that applied the methods of science to better understand and improve society
7 Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas HobbesSaw English Civil WarBelieves society must be ruled by absolute monarchHumans are nasty and brutal by natureSocial contract – give up freedom for an organized societyLeviathan
8 Enlightenment Thinkers LOCKESaw Glorious RevolutionNatural law: use of reason to study human behavior and create binding rules of moral behaviorDivine purpose for humanityLife, liberty, propertyTwo Treaties of Government
9 Comparing Locke and Hobbes Views toward the "state of nature” compared the English Civil War to the “state of nature”, which was brutalhis negative view of the revolution led him to conclude that society needed a strong king. ABSOLUTE MONARCHLockebelieved that the state of nature was good. if governments could not do as much for people than they did for themselves in the state of nature, then government could be dismantled.
10 Comparing Locke & Hobbes Views toward human nature has a negative view toward human nature “nasty, brutal….”; Locke:the human mind is like a blank slate.
11 Comparison and contrast of views on government Hobbes:a contract exists between the king and the people; but once the king becomes king, he cannot be overthrown & obtains absolute power. Locke:government conditional & can be overthrown if it does not represent the people
12 Using your notes & Section 1 packet Explain how the leaders of the Scientific Revolution influenced the philosophes.How did the Glorious Revolution influence the ideas of the Enlightenment?How might the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and the U.S. Constitution be considered to be documents of the Age of Enlightenment?
13 Pick up the “Face-off” & Locke and Hobbes worksheets Do Now – 12/6/12Pick up the “Face-off” & Locke and Hobbes worksheetstake out your notes on Locke & Hobbes
14 Face Off – Locke vs. Hobbes FIRST – read Hobbes’ & Locke’s quotes and answer their corresponding questions by yourself!SECOND – you will be placed in groups to answer the bottom 3 summary questions TOGETHER!THIRD – read the background on both Locke & HobbesUnderline the IMPORTANT information in each sectionYou will need to use this information to support your “debate”!
15 Participate in a CONSTRUCTIVE manner DebateParticipate in a CONSTRUCTIVE manner3 times – 10 points2 times – 8 points1 time – 5 points times – points
16 Questions to think about… Why would the basic nature of humans be a topic of discussion?Why would this be important for developing a concept for an ideal form of government?How would these writers have come up with their point of view?How could Locke and Hobbes have such different conclusions?Think about your personal experiences & the role environment plays in forming YOUR ideas.
17 How can you attain peace? Hobbes vs. LockeThere are three major causes of fighting...Competition: People see themselves as in competition with each other.(invade for gain)Diffidence: People lack self confidence and thus tend to overcompensate for it. (invade for safety)Glory: People tend to desire glory. They expect others to value them as well as they value themselves. (invade for reputation)How can you attain peace?
18 ConclusionWhich philosophe did you side with prior to our class discussion? (Locke or Hobbes)WHY???Do you still agree with his beliefs as strongly as you once did?Yes? – explain! No? – Explain!
19 SWBAT summarize how economic thinking changed during the enlightenment ObjectiveSWBAT summarize how economic thinking changed during the enlightenment
20 Do NowHow did Locke and Hobbes differ in their views on the role of government?What convinced educated Europeans to accept the power of reason?
21 Enlightenment Philosophers and Writers Fill out your chart for the following individuals:VoltaireMontesquieuDiderotJean-Jacques RousseauMary Wollstonecraft
22 Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1778) Targeted corrupt officialsBattled inequality, injustice, and superstitionDisagreed with slave trade & religious prejudiceOffended French government and Catholic ChurchBastille prison twiceExiled – forced to leave ParisDefended principles of freedom of speech
23 Baron de Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755) Persian Letters: ridiculed the French government and social classesCriticized absolute poweridea of separation of powersDivide powers among three branchesLegislative, executive, judicialChecks and balancesStudied various governments across Europe and historyInfluenced framers of the U.S. Constitution
24 Denis Diderot Encyclopedias “change the general way of thinking” Explained government, philosophy, and religionarticles from Voltaire and MontesquieuDenounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, urged education for allAttacked divine right and other traditionsPope excommunication to any Catholic that readSpread Enlightenment ideas
25 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote The Social ContractPeople by nature are good corrupt by evils of societySociety = too many limitations on people’s behaviorSome controls – but should be minimalOnly governments that are freely elected should impose these controls“general will” - best conscience of the peopleGood of the community should be placed above individual interestsThomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopt this view
26 Mary Wollstonecraft “free and equal” did not apply to women natural rights limited to areas of home and familymid to late 1700s women protested this viewArgued they were being excluded from social contractWollstonecraft accepted women’s duty to be a good motherShould be able to determine their best interest without depending on men1792: Vindication of Rights of WomanEqual education for boys and girlsEducation would help women participate equally with men
27 QuestionsWhat were the “hot” topics addressed by the philosophes and published in the Encyclopedia?To you, which was the most important?Which philosophe would you side with? WHY? Explain.If it’s a combination – explain what you would include and what you would eliminate and WHY.
28 Political CartoonComplete handoutAnswer questions 1 & 2