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The European Enlightenment

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Presentation on theme: "The European Enlightenment"— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Enlightenment

2 Objective SWBAT explain how science led to the Enlightenment
SWBAT Compare the ideas of Locke and Hobbes

3 Do Now 12/6/12 Have your homework out – ready to go over
Answer the following in your notes: What is the Enlightenment? How do you think events such as the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution sparked new ideas of the Enlightenment?

4 Foundations of the Enlightenment Impact of the Enlightenment
BACON and DESCARTES: Reason & Logic Growth of Secular Ideas; Importance of Education ISAAC NEWTON: Natural Law Belief in Progress HOBBES and ROUSSEAU: The Social Contract American and French Revolutions, Independence Movements ENLIGHTENMENT THOUGHT JOHN LOCKE: Natural Rights—Life, Liberty, and Property Declaration of Independence, Rights of Man and Citizen, Growth of Individualism VOLTAIRE: Religious Tolerance U.S. Bill of Rights and Enlightened Monarchies MONESTESQUIEU: Separation of Powers French, U.S., and Latin American Constitutions BECCARIA: Reform of Criminal Justice System Abolishment of Torture and Capital Punishment

5 The Age of Reason Scientific Revolution  Enlightenment
1700s scientists expanded European knowledge in Scientific Revolution Scientific successes created great confidence in the power of REASON If people used reason to find laws that governed the physical world, why not use reason to discover natural laws (laws that govern human nature)

6 Scientific Revolution  Enlightenment
With the use of REASON, Enlightenment thinkers could solve every social, political, and economic problem Two thinkers: John Locke and Thomas Hobbes Philosophes – “lovers of wisdom” Enlightenment thinkers that applied the methods of science to better understand and improve society

7 Enlightenment Thinkers
Thomas Hobbes Saw English Civil War Believes society must be ruled by absolute monarch Humans are nasty and brutal by nature Social contract – give up freedom for an organized society Leviathan

8 Enlightenment Thinkers
LOCKE Saw Glorious Revolution Natural law: use of reason to study human behavior and create binding rules of moral behavior Divine purpose for humanity Life, liberty, property Two Treaties of Government

9 Comparing Locke and Hobbes Views toward the "state of nature”
compared the English Civil War to the “state of nature”, which was brutal his negative view of the revolution led him to conclude that society needed a strong king.  ABSOLUTE MONARCH Locke believed that  the state of nature  was good.  if governments could not do as much for people than they did for themselves in the state of nature, then government could be dismantled.

10 Comparing Locke & Hobbes Views toward human nature
has a negative view toward human nature “nasty, brutal….”;  Locke: the human mind is like a blank slate.

11 Comparison and contrast of views on government
Hobbes: a contract exists between the king and the people; but once the king becomes king, he cannot be overthrown & obtains absolute power.  Locke: government conditional & can be overthrown if it does not represent the people

12 Using your notes & Section 1 packet
Explain how the leaders of the Scientific Revolution influenced the philosophes. How did the Glorious Revolution influence the ideas of the Enlightenment? How might the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and the U.S. Constitution be considered to be documents of the Age of Enlightenment?

13 Pick up the “Face-off” & Locke and Hobbes worksheets
Do Now – 12/6/12 Pick up the “Face-off” & Locke and Hobbes worksheets take out your notes on Locke & Hobbes

14 Face Off – Locke vs. Hobbes
FIRST – read Hobbes’ & Locke’s quotes and answer their corresponding questions by yourself! SECOND – you will be placed in groups to answer the bottom 3 summary questions TOGETHER! THIRD – read the background on both Locke & Hobbes Underline the IMPORTANT information in each section You will need to use this information to support your “debate”!

15 Participate in a CONSTRUCTIVE manner
Debate Participate in a CONSTRUCTIVE manner 3 times – 10 points 2 times – 8 points 1 time – 5 points  times –  points

16 Questions to think about…
Why would the basic nature of humans be a topic of discussion? Why would this be important for developing a concept for an ideal form of government? How would these writers have come up with their point of view? How could Locke and Hobbes have such different conclusions? Think about your personal experiences & the role environment plays in forming YOUR ideas.

17 How can you attain peace?
Hobbes vs. Locke There are three major causes of fighting... Competition: People see themselves as in competition with each other.(invade for gain) Diffidence: People lack self confidence and thus tend to overcompensate for it. (invade for safety) Glory: People tend to desire glory. They expect others to value them as well as they value themselves. (invade for reputation) How can you attain peace?

18 Conclusion Which philosophe did you side with prior to our class discussion? (Locke or Hobbes) WHY??? Do you still agree with his beliefs as strongly as you once did? Yes? – explain! No? – Explain!

19 SWBAT summarize how economic thinking changed during the enlightenment
Objective SWBAT summarize how economic thinking changed during the enlightenment

20 Do Now How did Locke and Hobbes differ in their views on the role of government? What convinced educated Europeans to accept the power of reason?

21 Enlightenment Philosophers and Writers
Fill out your chart for the following individuals: Voltaire Montesquieu Diderot Jean-Jacques Rousseau Mary Wollstonecraft

22 Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet  Voltaire (1694-1778)
Targeted corrupt officials Battled inequality, injustice, and superstition Disagreed with slave trade & religious prejudice Offended French government and Catholic Church Bastille prison twice Exiled – forced to leave Paris Defended principles of freedom of speech

23 Baron de Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755)
Persian Letters: ridiculed the French government and social classes Criticized absolute power idea of separation of powers Divide powers among three branches Legislative, executive, judicial Checks and balances Studied various governments across Europe and history Influenced framers of the U.S. Constitution

24 Denis Diderot Encyclopedias “change the general way of thinking”
Explained government, philosophy, and religion articles from Voltaire and Montesquieu Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, urged education for all Attacked divine right and other traditions Pope  excommunication to any Catholic that read Spread Enlightenment ideas

25 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Wrote The Social Contract People by nature are good  corrupt by evils of society Society = too many limitations on people’s behavior Some controls – but should be minimal Only governments that are freely elected should impose these controls “general will” - best conscience of the people Good of the community should be placed above individual interests Thomas Paine & Marquis de Lafayette adopt this view

26 Mary Wollstonecraft “free and equal” did not apply to women
natural rights  limited to areas of home and family mid to late 1700s women protested this view Argued they were being excluded from social contract Wollstonecraft accepted women’s duty to be a good mother Should be able to determine their best interest without depending on men 1792: Vindication of Rights of Woman Equal education for boys and girls Education would help women participate equally with men

27 Questions What were the “hot” topics addressed by the philosophes and published in the Encyclopedia? To you, which was the most important? Which philosophe would you side with? WHY? Explain. If it’s a combination – explain what you would include and what you would eliminate and WHY.

28 Political Cartoon Complete handout Answer questions 1 & 2

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