# To study Thomas Aquinas’ argument from CAUSATION as an argument for the existence of God. (SAINT) Thomas Aquinas= a 13 th Century Catholic priest, theologian.

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To study Thomas Aquinas’ argument from CAUSATION as an argument for the existence of God. (SAINT) Thomas Aquinas= a 13 th Century Catholic priest, theologian and philosopher (and his bird)

GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence. GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence.

Lets play a game.... Look at the following images carefully and try to work out WHAT HAPPENED FIRST! What CAUSED it?

David Moyes is sacked

The family of Lee Rigby lay a wreath at Woolwich Barracks

Kesennuma city, Miyagi prefecture

Causation: ‘The argument that everything must have been started off (caused) by something else.’ Think about the starter activity – EVERYTHING has a logical CAUSE!

This argument also relies on something called ‘cause and effect’. Everything that happens (effect) must have something that has made it happen (cause). DOMINOS - for a row of dominos to fall (EFFECT) they would need the first domino to be pushed (CAUSE) to set in motion a chain of causes (one domino falls onto the next which falls onto the next etc...)

1. Nothing happens by itself, everything needs a cause 1. 2. Therefore the universe must have a cause. 3. Only God could have caused a universe to come about. 3. 4. Therefore, as the universe exists, there must be a God. 4. The Causation Argument is also known as the COSMOLOGICAL argument. It was first put forward by a Medieval Christian thinker called THOMAS AQUINAS (SAINT) Put the four boxes on pxx of your booklet in what you think is the correct order.

GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence. GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence.

Listen up! There are arguments against Causation. You are going to hear some of them. First listen – just listen. Second listen – note down main points. Third listen – note down other details. Then re-write the text you have heard using the notes you made. How close to the original can you get?

How close did you get? “Arguments against causation include the mathematical idea of infinity. This means the universe doesn’t need a beginning at all. Another argument is that even if the universe did need a cause, why does that cause have to be God? It could be an extra-terrestrial lifeform. Science argues that the “Big Bang” theory explains how the universe began and we have proof of that; just because everything in the world has a cause, it doesn’t mean the universe did. Finally if everything in the universe needs a cause then so does God. The theory only works if we can find out who caused God.”

GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence. GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence.

In the exam you may be required to argue both FOR and AGAINST the FIRST CAUSE argument. For example… (D) “The universe could not have happened by chance - God must have caused it.” AGAINST – It DOES NOT prove that exists. FOR – It proves that God DOES exist. Think of what we have looked at over the past two lessons. Can you come up with TWO arguments FOR and TWO arguments AGAINST. I DISAGREE because… (OR some people (OR ATHEISTS) might disagree because…) I AGREE because…. (OR Thomas Aquinas and Christians might AGREE because…) If EVERYTHING needs a cause then God must need a cause. His argument contradicts itself. This idea makes sense – something cannot come from nothing – everything needs and has a CAUSE, for example… Science says that matter is eternal so was never created or caused. Therefore we don’t need a FIRST CAUSE. This argument fits with science – cause and effect – maybe God caused the Big Bang. Even if there was a FIRST CAUSE – why does it have to be God? It could have been something else like matter. Everything needs a beginning including the universe – the only thing omnipotent and omniscient enough to start the universe is God. Now use the arguments for and against to have a go at page 5 Question 2 (parts (i) & (ii)) of your REVISION WORKBOOK. Use your YELLOW SHEET to help you get the right structure. Swap with a partner and mark each others work in GREEN PEN REMEMBER use you PERFECT PEER MARKING card and your YELLOW SHEET to help you mark in the correct way. There is some CORRECT ideas on the board to help you.

GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence. GRADE C Will be able to give a basic outline of the argument from causation GRADE B Will be able to organise arguments against the argument from causation. GRADE A/A* Will be able to evaluate arguments both for and against this argument proving God’s existence.

Decide whether the following are from the DESIGN argument or the CAUSATION argument...

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