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Project Management. 5 Basic Functions of Managing ßPlan ßStaff ßOrganize ßDirect ßControl A Review… What do these terms mean to you relative to your project?

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management. 5 Basic Functions of Managing ßPlan ßStaff ßOrganize ßDirect ßControl A Review… What do these terms mean to you relative to your project?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management

2 5 Basic Functions of Managing ßPlan ßStaff ßOrganize ßDirect ßControl A Review… What do these terms mean to you relative to your project?

3 Key Definitions ßProject management is the process of planning and controlling the development of a system within a specified timeframe at a minimum cost with the right functionality. ßA project manager has the primary responsibility for managing the hundreds of tasks and roles that need to be carefully coordinated. Without a project manager, how will you make sure the tasks and roles in your teams will be managed & coordinated?

4 CREATING THE WORK PLAN

5 A Workplan Example Work Plan InformationExample Name of taskPerform economic feasibility Start date`Jan 05, 2001 Completion dateJan 19, 2001 Person assignedMary Smith, sponsor Deliverable(s)Cost-benefit analysis Completion statusOpen PriorityHigh Resources neededSpreadsheet Estimated time16 hours Actual time14.5 hours Note, you would have one of these for each TASK.

6 Identifying Tasks ßTop-down approach ßIdentify highest level tasks ßBreak them into increasingly smaller units

7 Top Down Task Identification Phases Phases with high level steps Work PlanDeliverablesEstimatedActual Assigned hourshoursTo *

8 Getting the Right Numbers for Estimation ßPrior projects ßPast experience ßDetailed analysis

9 Increasing Complexity with Larger Teams

10 Timeboxing ßFixed deadline ßReduced functionality, if necessary ßFewer “finishing touches” There will come a point in time when you will have to say, “ENOUGH! We have to move on with what we’ve got.” You will not attain perfection.

11 Timeboxing Steps ßSet delivery date ßPrioritize features by importance (A) ßBuild the core (B) ßPostpone unfinished functionality (C) ßDeliver the system with core functionality ßRepeat steps A-C to add refinements and enhancement as time allows

12 STAFFING THE PROJECT Subtitle: Managing the People Element

13 Teams are Susceptible to Risky Shifts ßGroups tend to gamble more than individual members would if each were making the decision alone ßFor example: when groups try to do more with a project than they have time available. ßUnderlying cause: a diffusion of responsibility ßE.g., It is not clear who is in charge of the outcome, so no one is ßRemedy: Specific roles & responsibilities for members

14 Roles & Responsibilities ßRecorder: takes notes on major points that are raised and summarizes as needed ßTimekeeper: monitors the time allocated to discussion and reminds the group of how much time is left ßDiscussion Leader: provides overall guidance and direction to the group's activities. Essential to facilitate smooth, efficient functioning of a group.

15 ßSpokesperson: reports on the group's activities ßLogical Thinker: insures that the positions developed are supported by evidence ßDevil's Advocate: challenges what others say ßProcess Observer: comments on how the group worked together after completion of a group meeting We will revisit these momentarily...

16 3 Typical Issues for Teams Output QualityHigh Time Required Team AcceptanceHigh Low

17 3 Typical Issues for Teams Scenario 1 Output QualityHigh Time Required Team AcceptanceHigh Low Hurry Up! I can’t waste any more time on this! What happens to Decision Quality & Team Acceptance?

18 3 Typical Issues for Teams Scenario 1 Output QualityHigh Time Required Team AcceptanceHigh Low Hurry Up! I can’t waste any more time on this! What happens to Decision Quality & Team Acceptance?

19 3 Typical Issues for Teams Scenario 2 Output QualityHigh Time Required Team AcceptanceHigh Low What happens Time Required? I refuse to settle for any grade lower than an A!

20 3 Typical Issues for Teams Scenario 2 Output QualityHigh Time Required Team AcceptanceHigh Low What happens Time Required? I refuse to settle for any grade lower than an A!

21 Conflict Avoidance Strategies ßClearly define roles and project plans ßHold individuals accountable ßCreate project charter listing norms and groundrules ßDevelop schedule commitments ahead of time ßForecast other priorities and their possible impact on the project

22 Beware! Teams Can Fall Victim to Groupthink... Essentially groups come to believe: "There is only one way to do things -- our way." "We can do no wrong here."

23 Indicators of Groupthink ßpush all team members to think alike ßignore or discount alternative points of view ßbelieve that the group is incapable of making a bad decision ßput down or chastise those who criticize the "will of the majority" ßto ignore or discount criticism of the group's work or the product it produces

24 Groupthink... ßaffects groups working on almost any task where there is pressure to finish a task in a relatively short amount of time. ßRemedy: members assume the roles of ßdevil's advocate ßlogical thinker ßprocess observer

25 CONTROLLING AND DIRECTING THE PROJECT

26 The Hurricane Model Project Stage Time

27 Hurricane Model The rest of the team swirls around one dominant person

28 Tornado Model Destructive whirlwind of activity

29 Team Model Planned activity where each team member creates a piece that fits into and completes the whole

30 Tracking Tasks Using Gantt Chart Action Week

31 Documentation ßProject binder ßTable of contents ßContinual updating

32 Managing Scope ßScope creep -- a major cause of problems ßFormal change approval We’ve already been through this … 30 minutes -> 3 hour presentations

33 Classic Mistakes ßOverly optimistic schedule ßFailing to monitor schedule ßFailing to update schedule

34 Summary ßProject management is critical to successful development of new systems ßProject management involves planning, organizing, directing, controlling and reporting on time and labor.

35 Resources: ßPowerPoint Presentation for Chapter 4, Project Management, in Dennis, Wixom & Tegardem, Systems Analysis and Design, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ßAnthony Grasha, Teaching with Style, 1996, Alliance Publishers


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