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Enlightenment. England Elizabeth I died childless, so her cousin James from Scotland became king = James I.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment. England Elizabeth I died childless, so her cousin James from Scotland became king = James I."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment

2 England Elizabeth I died childless, so her cousin James from Scotland became king = James I

3 England James I believed in divine right, absolute power = many fights with Parliament over $ James I was best known for supporting the creation of the King James version of the Bible

4 England Charles I succeeded James and also believed in divine right He wanted $ for his wars = petition Paliament

5 England Parliament exchanged $ for Charles I signing the Petition of Right The Petition of Right had 4 points King cannot imprison subjects without due cause King could not get taxes without Parliament King could not house soldiers in civilian homes King could not impose martial law in peacetime

6 England Charles dissolved Parliament for 8 years until he needed $ to fight Scotland Parliament tried to limit the king’s power = king arrested members = start of English Civil War

7 England Charles (Cavaliers) v Parliament (Roundheads)

8 England Oliver Cromwell led the Parliament forces and defeated Charles I He then executed Charles I = 1 st king executed Cromwell then created the Commonwealth of England and became a military dictator

9 England Cromwell outlawed sinful activities After Cromwell’s death, England wanted the king to come back = Restoration = Charles II takes over

10 England Habeas Corpus = a person cannot be held in prison for opposing a king

11 England Charles II = no children = brother James II became king James II was Catholic and England was not Whig party did not want James and the Tories did

12 England James II had a son who would be Catholic = Parliament got rid of James = Glorious Revolution Called Glorious Revolution because of no bloodshed James’s daughter and her husband became king and queen = William and Mary

13 England Parliament created the English Bill of Rights = limited royal power This turned England into a constitutional monarchy (laws limit the king’s power)

14 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Medieval View of Science *Unquestioning *Based on ancient teachings or The Bible *Geocentric Theory of the universe-the Earth was at the center and all the rest revolved around it.

15 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION The Scientific Revolution was a new way of looking at the world based on careful observation and a questioning of accepted beliefs.

16 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION What brought on the Scientific Revolution?  New ideas during the Renaissance  Translation of ancient Muslim manuscripts brought new knowledge to Europe  Exploration brought new knowledge and a willingness to accept new truths  New advances in math and astronomy associated with exploration

17 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION NEW MODEL OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM Copernicus studied astronomy and realized the sun was at the center. He proposed the heliocentric, sun centered theory.

18 Copernicus Kepler

19 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION A circular path did not fully explain the movement of the planets. Johannes Kepler proved mathematically that Copernicus was basically correct, but it was an elliptical orbit, rather than circular.

20 Scientific Revolution Galileo developed the mathematics of gravity and proved that objects fall at a predictable rate. He also created a telescope to study the stars and planets. He supported Copernicus’ heliocentric model. He came in conflict with the Catholic Church. He was tried by the and forced to Catholic Church and forced to say Copernicus was wrong and the Church was right. In 1992 Pope John Paul II formally cleared Galileo and acknowledged Copernicus was right.

21 Galileo Galilei

22 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Francis Bacon helped develop the Scientific Method by his proposal that scientists should use observation rather than relying on old knowledge.

23 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?

24 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Rene Decartes helped it along by developing analytical geometry that combined algebra and geometry. His findings supported the new movement known as skepticism. “I think, therefore I am.”

25 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION SIR ISAAC NEWTON Brought it all together in his universal laws of gravitation and motion proving that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.

26 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION BRINGS ADVANCES IN SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS Zacharias Jansser, a Dutch eyeglass maker, invented a microscope. Anton van Leeuwenhoek used the microscope to see bacteria and red blood cells for the first time.

27 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION BRINGS ADVANCES IN SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS Gabriel Fahrenheit developed a thermometer showing freezing at 32° while Anders Celsius created another scale with freezing at 0°.

28 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION BRINGS ADVANCES IN MEDICINE Galen, a physician during the Middle Ages, believed human anatomy was like a pigs. He dissected pigs but not humans.

29 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION In 1543 Andreas Vesalius dissected a human and showed actual human anatomy.

30 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Edward Jenner used cowpox to prevent smallpox, thus creating the world’s first vaccine

31 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Robert Boyle was the founder of modern chemistry. He proposed the idea of small particles making up matter. He also gave us Boyles Law that explains how volume, temperature and pressure of gas affect each other.

32 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.1 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Isaac Newton said, “If have seen farther than others it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Who was he talking about?

33 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE ENLIGHTENMENT OR AGE OF REASON Scientific Revolution led people to look for laws governing all aspects of society including human behavior, religion, education, economics and government.

34 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE TWO THINKERS LEAD THE WAY Thomas HobbesJohn Locke  People were naturally wicked  Needed a social contract to provide order  Needed an absolute ruler  People could improve themselves  Favored self-government  Rulers needed consent of the people  Believed in natural rights— life, liberty and property.  His ideas influenced the US Constitution and Bill of Rights

35 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE The French Philosophes THINKERIDEAIMPACT Voltaire *a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn. Freedom of thought and expression Used satire* Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights

36 Enlightenment Voltaire

37 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE The French Philosophes THINKERIDEAIMPACT MontesquieuSeparation of powers was best way to prevent abuse. Later called “checks and balances” US Constitution

38 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE THINKERIDEAIMPACT RousseauCommitted to individual freedom Civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness and forced them to obey unjust laws The only good government was a direct democracy Constitution and Bill of Rights “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains” Rousseau

39 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE THINKERIDEAIMPACT BeccariaLaws were to preserve order not punish crime Against torture and cruel punishment There should be speedy trials Constitution and Bill of Rights

40 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE Women and the Enlightenment Most male philosophers took the traditional view Women writers tried to improve the status of women Mary Wollstonecraft published an essay: “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” in 1792 It supported the rights of women especially in the area of education, career choice and political rights.

41 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE Children and the Enlightenment During the Enlightenment, this idea changed. People believed children should be educated and allowed to mature. New toys, such as the rocking horse, appeared. Children's clothes were made differently. Children’s literature such as Mother Goose was printed.

42 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE IMPACT OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT Belief in progress in society, government and science Recognition of the importance of the individual More secular (worldly) outlook on life Chardin

43 Enlighenment Enlightenment ideas spread with the help of women Salons were events held by rich women where enlightenment ideas were discussed and sometimes financed

44 Enlightenment Denis Diderot received $ at salons to start his project: Encyclopedia Salons and the encyclopedias helped spread the Enlightenment ideas

45 Enlightenment Art during the Enlightenment was dominated by the baroque style Baroque style was grand, ornate style

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48 Enlightenment Baroque music played by Johann Sebastian Bach and George Handel

49 Enlightenment Baroque style gave way to Neoclassical style Neoclassical music was simple and elegant Great neoclassical composers were Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven

50 Enlightenment Novels also became extremely popular Examples: Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones, and Samuel Richardson’s Pamela

51 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3 SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS ENLIGHTENMENT AND MONARCHY OLD IDEA The state and the citizens exist to serve the monarch NEW IDEA The monarch exists to serve the state and support citizens’ welfare.

52 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3 SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS ENLIGHTENMENT AND MONARCHY Enlightened despots accepted the philosophy that they should respect the peoples’ rights. They had no intention of giving up power. They were motivated to accept changes because they wanted to:  Make their country more powerful  Make their rule more effective

53 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3 SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS Frederick II (the Great) Wanted his people to be happy and cared about their welfare Ended many abuses Granted many freedoms such as religion, press and education Did not end serfdom Needed landowner support Called “first servant of the state”

54 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.3 SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS Joseph II Ruled Austria Legal reforms and freedom of the press Most radical reformer of the age Abolished serfdom and required cash payment Landowners hated him Most reforms reversed after his death

55 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION In 1760, George III became king of England. The colonies were growing and becoming richer. They also expected the same rights as all English subjects. George needed to pay for the French and Indian War.

56 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Navigation Tax (1660’s)-colonists could only sell to the British and pay high taxes on non- British goods. This led to smuggling by the colonists and the anger at the British.

57 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Stamp Act (1765)- a tax had to be paid on all documents including wills, newspapers and deeds. The outraged colonists boycotted British goods and the Act was repealed in 1766.

58 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION The Declaration goes on to list grievances and specifically accuses King George III of abusing his powers.

59 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION The American Revolution lasted from The Colonists won because: 1. France entered the war and sent Lafayette to help 2.Time was on their side 3.They were defending their homeland 4.British generals made mistakes

60 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Articles of Confederation Create a Weak Government The first government was created by the Articles of Confederation. There was no judicial or executive branch, only Congress was created. Each state had one vote. It could not collect taxes or regulate trade. Passing laws was difficult because 9 out of 13 states had to agree. That would be 35 today.

61 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION SHAY’S REBELLION When Massachusetts refused to issue paper money so farmers could repay debt, Daniel Shay and others rebelled. It was put down but showed the need for a strong national government.

62 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION THE US CONSTITUTION Many compromises: Two houses Continue slavery Slaves are 3/5 th of a person Amendments satisfied the Anti-federalists Created a federal system where power is shared between the national and state governments

63 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION The Federalists wanted a fiscally and militarily strong nation state, and showed little interest in states' or individual rights. They did not want the freedoms provided by the Bill of Rights. Alexander Hamilton and John Jay were the chief supporters of this view. Hamilton Jay

64 ENLIGHETENMENT AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 22.4 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Anti-federalist applied to a group that supported a less centralized federal government in which the states and individuals retained more power. They supported the Bill of Rights. Thomas Jefferson believed this.


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