Presentation on theme: "Galileo In 1992, the Roman Catholic Church righted a wrong it had inflicted upon a scientist in 1633. Pope John Paul II admitted the Church has been wrong."— Presentation transcript:
Galileo In 1992, the Roman Catholic Church righted a wrong it had inflicted upon a scientist in Pope John Paul II admitted the Church has been wrong to bring Galileo Galilei before the Roman Inquisition for his scientific teachings. Galileo was shown traditional instruments of torture used by the Inquisition. Then he was given a chance to recant his views as heresy. Galileo was placed under house arrest in Florence for the rest of his life and forbidden to teach. What did Galileo teach that was heresy to the Church at that time?
The Scientific Revolution & The Enlightenment **How did discoveries in science lead to a new way of thinking for Europeans? **What effect did Enlightenment philosophers have on government & society?
Why did the Scientific Revolution happen? Renaissance – curiosity, investigation, discovery and practical application Question old ideas & beliefs Use newer approaches to question natural world
What was it? New way of looking at the natural world Used experiments & mathematics Study became more organized Scientific Method: new approach to answer questions of science
Opposition to the Sci. Rev.? Who do you think would be opposed? Think about: What did the scientists study? What theories were they coming up with?
Who was involved? Copernicus Kepler Galilei Boyle Vesalius Brahe Bacon Descartes Newton Harvey Lavoisier
New ways of thinking? Earth or Sun? Church or Science? Observation & Experimentation Forces controlling Earth & its inhabitants? God or something else?
Science & Technology How has science changed people’s lives throughout history? P. 439: complete the “Thinking Critically” question #1 & we will discuss…
What is The Enlightenment? Natural law can explain aspects of humanity Influenced by the Scientific Revolution Applied reason & scientific method to all aspects of society Government, religion, economics, education Reached height in mid-1700s
Opposition to Enlightenment Autocratic states Too much thought from citizens could lead to upheaval – revolution Church Reason leads to questioning of faith & religious beliefs Autocratic: having unlimited power
6 Principal (Main) Ideas Reason/Rationalism: truth can only be arrived at with rational thinking/logic Cause & Effect: Everything has a cause and effect which can be discovered by observation and experimentation Nature What was natural was good and reasonable. Natural laws of economics & politics; just like natural laws of motion
6 Principal Ideas (cont’d) Progress: Belief that individuals and society can be improved and progress toward perfection Freedom: Individuals should be free to make up their own minds without religious doctrine, superstition and government intervention Happiness: Belief that people must live by natural laws to lead a happy life; unnecessary to accept misery on Earth for joy in the hereafter
Who were the Philosophes & Physiocrats? “Economic Thinkers” = Physiocrats Urged laissez-faire regulation (little or no regulation) Free trade; opposed to tariffs (tax on imports) “Thinkers” = Philosophes Applied methods of science to humanity Dramatically influenced American & French Revolution
Impact of the Enlightenment American & French Revolutions US Constitution New ideas of separation of powers, freely elected governments,
‘PH’ab-ulous Philosophes Thomas Hobbes John Locke Baron de Montesquieu Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) Denis Diderot Jean-Jacques Rousseau Mary Wollstonecraft Adam Smith
Welcome Work! Identify 1 characteristic about the Enlightenment and describe it! Complete the Philosophy in the Age of Reason crossword puzzle – using your textbook!
Document-Based Assessment Open to page 569 Read documents A, B and C Answer questions #1-3 Complete #4 – the writing task
Enlightenment & Scientific Hall of Fame Create a poster… include: Name of Philosophe or Scientist Print out a picture/painting of your philosophe or scientist 3 important contributions he/she made to the period
René Descartes “Father of Modern Mathematics” “I think, therefore I am.” Invented the Cartesian coordinate system used in geometry and algebra Wrote the Principles of Philosophy
Enlightenment Hall of Fame You will be assigned a philosophe or physiocrat. With your partner, you will write a speech explaining why your philosopher should be selected to the Enlightenment Hall of Fame. Partners will be reader or writer Reader/Presenter: reads aloud from text & present finished speech Note-taker/Writer: writes important details & (physically) writes the speech
Answer these questions… Biography: Where was the philosopher born? What was his upbringing? What was his job? Where did he study? What book(s) did he write? Philosophical Ideas: Did this political thinker think people could govern themselves? Is humankind basically good or bad? What, if any, are the underlining ideas behind this person’s thinking? Beliefs in government/economics: What did this thinker believe is the best form of government/economy? Did this thinker contribute any new political/economic ideas?