A Caused B Cured Prevented Graphic x: Establishing Causality Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Causal argument is reasoning which purpose to test whether A causes B
A Could cause B Did cause Does cause The situation is one we have an interest in controlling the cause Graphic x: All causal Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
INDUCTION DEDUCTION Forming a general theory of explanation based on specific observations that have been made previously. Making a specific prediction based on a general principle believed to be true. Graphic 4: Deduction and Induction Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
¿¿¿¿???? IDEAS METACOGNITION Is our ability to know what we know and what we don’t know Graphic 6: Metacognition Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
SEVEN SINS OF MEMORY Sins of comission: some form of memory is present, but it is either incorrect or unwarranted. Transience Absent-mindedness Blocking Misattribution Suggestibility Bias Persistence Graphic 8: Seven sins of memory Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Sins of omission: fail to bring to mind a desired fact or idea.
11:00 Ask questions 1:00 Have a voice 3:00 Be open 4:00 Utilize help 5:00 Question the experts 6:00 Gain knowledge 7:00 Listen 8:00 Recognize your assumptions 9:00 Strategic thinking 10:00 Re-conceptualize 2:00 Consider other pespectives Graphic 10: The Novice Sage Manifesto Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
METHODOLOGICAL BELIEF 0:01 What’s interesting or helpful about the view? What are some intriguing features that others might not have noticed? 0:02 What are some intriguing features that others might not have noticed? 0:03 What would you notice if you believed this view? 0:04 How would the world work differently if this were true? 0:05 Under what conditions might this idea actually be true? Graphic 11: Methodological Belief Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence Capacites involved Understanding order and meaning of words Convincing someone of a course of action Humor Memory and recall Graphic 12a: Multiple Intelligences: Verbal/Linguistic Design: Bertha Lucía Fries “Meta- linguistic” analysis Explaining, teaching and learning
Visual/Spatial Intelligence Capacities involved Active imagination Forming mental images Finding your way in space Graphic representation Imagine manipulations Graphic 12c : Multiple Intelligences: Visual Spatial Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Accurat e percepti on from different angles Recognizing relationships of objects in space
Body/Kinesthetic Intelligence Capacities involved Control of preprogrammed movements Expanding awareness through the body Mimetic abilities Improved body functioning The mind and body connection Control voluntary movements Graphic 12d: Multiple Intelligences: Body/ Kinesthetic Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Musical/Rhytmist Intelligence Capacities involved “Schemas” or “frames” in the mind for hearing music Sensitivity to sounds Sensing characteristic qualities of a tone Recognition, creation, and reproduction of melody/rhythm Appreciation for the structure of music Graphic 12e : Multiple Intelligences: Musical/Rhytmist Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Sensitivity to other’s moods, temperaments, motivations and feelings Interpersonal Intelligence Capacities involved Working cooperatively in a group “Passing over” into the perspective of another Creating and maintaining synergy Effective verbal/non-verbal communication Graphic 12f: Multiple Intelligences: Interpersonal Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Ability to discern other’s underlying intentions and behavior
Intrapersonal Intelligence Capacities involved Metacognition Awareness and expression of different feelings Higher-order thinking and reasoning Mindfulness Graphic 12g: Multiple Intelligences Intrapersonal Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Concentration of the mind Transpersonal sense of the self
Three Aspects of Successful Intelligence Analytically CreativelyPractically Graphic 13: Three Aspects of Successful Intelligence Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
1. Encounter an ill-defined problem 2. Ask IPF questions 3. Pursue problem finding 4. Map Problem finding: prioritize a problem 5. Investigate the problem 6. Analyze Results 7. Reiterate Learning 8. Generate Solutions and Recommendations 9. Communicate the Results 10. Conduct Self- Assessment Graphic 14: Ten Steps to PBL Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
The following strategies are useful in problem finding and promote multiple intelligence thinking and increase the quality and quantity of problem finding outcomes. Create a problem possibility web Make a Why- Why Diagram Redefine the problem Make a complaint list Bounce ideas off someone else Draw the problem Generate non-obvious possibilities Propose a “Camelot” Make a fishbone diagram Identify patterns or relationships Make an attribute list Brainstorm problem possibilities Think metaphorically Make a bubble map De-center from the situation Question assumptions Preface questions in ways that stimulate thinking Squeeze and stretch the problem Graphic 15: Problem Finding Strategies Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Make a flow map
Graphic 16: Six Thinking Hats Design: Bertha Lucía Fries White Hat: Just the facts please! Red Hat: Wearing this hat permits the thinker to say, "This is how I feel about the matter." Black Hat: This hat is specifically concerned with negative assessment. Yellow Hat: This is an attitude that moves ahead of a situation with positive hope. Green Hat: A creative, lateral thinker. Blue Hat: This is the "control" hat.
Graphic 16a: Yellow Hats Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Yellow Hat: This is an attitude that moves ahead of a situation with positive hope.
Graphic 16b: White Hat Design: Bertha Lucía Fries White Hat: Just the facts please!
Graphic 16c: Red Hat Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Red Hat: Wearing this hat permits the thinker to say, "This is how I feel about the matter."
Graphic 16d: Green Hat Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Green Hat: A creative, lateral thinker.
Graphic 16e: Blue Hat Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Blue Hat: This is the "control" hat.
Graphic 16f: Black Hat Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Black Hat: This hat is specifically concerned with negative assessment.
S ubstitute? who else, what else, other ingredient, materials, places? C ombine? how about a blend? combine units? combine purpose? A dapt? what else is like this? what other idea does this suggest? M odify? new twist? change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, form, shape? what to add? more time? greater frequency? higher, longer, thicker? M inify? subtract, divide, eliminate, shorten, simplify, etc. M agnify? enlarge, multiply, add, increase, exaggerate, etc. P ut to Other Uses? new ways to use as is? other uses if modified? other places to use? E liminate? what to subtract? smaller? condensed? miniature? lower? shorter? lighter? omit? streamline? understate? R earrange? interchange components? reverse? other patterns? other layout? other sequence? transpose cause and effect? Transpose positive and negative? how about opposites? turn it backward? turn it upside down? reverse roles? Table Scamper Technique Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Generatin g plot lines MIND MAPPING FOR WRITERS Brainstorming story ideas Fleshing out characters Making decisions (plot, characters, technique) Organizing store details Graphic 18: Mind Mapping for Writers Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Guidelines for Teamwork 1.Get learners actively involved. 2.Have members work cooperatively. 3.Respect diverse talents. 4.Emphasize time on task. 5.Provide prompt feedback on performance. 6.Empower members to have a role in the assessment. 7.Work in an environment that expects success. 8.Have frequent and rich leader-member interaction. 9.Develop awareness for problem solving. Graphic 25: Guidelines for Teamwork Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Graphic 20: Guidelines for Dialogue Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Graphic 23a: Free-Writing Design: Bertha Lucía Fries Idea Non stop
Graphic 19: Idea Exploration Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
VOICE… Itemized response: State what you recognize as valuable in an idea, not the flaws or weaknesses. Then you try to build it up and strengthen it. Absurdity Drill: Start with a real problem that hasn’t been solved. Others come up with an absurd idea to solve it. The first person retorts with an itemized response as well as concerns about the ‘absurd’ idea. Graphic 21: Tool to Promote Listening and Communication Design: Bertha Lucía Fries
Graphic 21: Become Effective Design: Bertha Lucía Fries