21. Why was Galileo brought before a jury? What was his “crime?” He was charged with heresy (crimes against the church).He was charged with this crime because he stated that the Sun was at the center of the universe, instead of the Earth (which the Church believed).He eventually changed his statement, and was sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life.
3How did attitudes toward science change during the Renaissance? People started to learn things through experiments and observation, instead of just reading about it.People also read more and different kinds of texts.The new way of learning was called the “Scientific Method”
4What did people do to learn before and at the early beginning of the Renaissance? People would read books by classical authors from ancient civilizations.People weren’t really encouraged to ask questions or do to experiments.
5Describe the Scientific Method: 1. Identify the problem or question2. Gather information on the problem.3. Form a hypothesis or an educated guess.4. Experiment to test the hypothesis.5. Record and analyze data.6. State a conclusion.7.Repeat the steps!
6When it came to Astronomy, what was the major belief before the Renaissance when it came to the sun? People believed that the sun rotated around the Earth, and that God placed the Earth at the centre of the universe.
7Name Three Significant Astronomers and their discoveries. 1. Copernicus—Discovered that Earth is a planet that moves around the Sun.2. Galileo—Confirmed Copernicus’s idea of a Sun-centered universe. He saw evidence through use of a telescope he developed.Kepler—Concluded that planets travelled in an elliptical orbit, not a perfect circle as Copernicus believed.
8During the Renaissance, which people played an important role in treating sick people? Midwives and others with knowledge of traditional and herbal remedies played an important role.Doctors and Scientists also were important, and made many medical discoveries that helped people.
9What medical procedure was made legal for the purpose of studying anatomy? The process of dissection was made legal in many Italian cities, for the purpose of study.Professors dissected human bodies with students watching, and used their findings to make detailed illustrations of human bodies.This was important to learn how the human body worked, and how to heal it.
10What advances in Mathematics were made during the Renaissance? Mathematics were viewed as a basic tool for understanding the universe.Geometry and algebra were more commonly used.Two important mathematicians: al-Khwarizmi (algebra) and Euclid (geometry) both came up with new ideas and theories in math.
11What is Perspective? How was it used for architecture? Perspective is a technique of representing objects in paintings as they appear to the human eye.Brunelleschi used perspective drawings to show how the buildings he was planning would look when they were finished.
12What other group started to use mathematics in their work? Artists and sculptors used mathematics in their works to make them look more accurate. Also engineers, architects, and musicians.
13Who was Isabella D’Este? She was married to the Duke of Mantua.She was an upper class person, and received a classical education as a girl. Her brilliant mind was admired.She was “the first lady of the world,” and ruled well by keeping in touch with her husband, and by continuing her learning.
14How did Niccolo Machiavelli come up with his ideas? He wrote a book called The Prince.He observed people and governments, which led him to new ways of thinking about leadership and power.His book became one of the most controversial books about politics that has ever been written.
15What did Machiavelli believe was the only thing that mattered? He believed that the only thing that mattered was the effective running of the state, and that the end was what counts.A leader could do anything as long as the state was doing well.The ideas of right and wrong were not important.He did not believe that religion should be part of government.
16What is allegory? How IS allegory used in Renaissance art? A work in which a character or events are meant to be understood as representing other things and symbolically expressing a deeper moral, spiritual, or political meaning.The use of symbols or symbolism.This was used in Renaissance art often, especially as many people could not read, but could understand the symbols.
17What three actions did leaders of the Catholic Church do that were not appropriate? Some church leaders spent the Church’s money on themselves.They took advantage of their authority to gain power and money for themselves, and for their families.Some bishops and cardinals “bought” their titles.
18Who was Girolamo Savonarola? What did he do to fight church corruption? He was a monk who belonged to the Dominican Order (Italy).He dedicated his life to fighting corruption in the church.He preached sermons that accused important church figures of corruption.Bonfire of the vanities—people encouraged to burn books, wigs, make-up, fancy clothing, and art.
19What happened to Savonarola? He was excommunicated by the pope (not allowed to practice religion).In 1498, he was tried for heresy, found guilty, and executed.
20Who was Martin Luther? What did he do to fight corruption in the church? He was a German monk.He started studying the bible for himself and decided that the bible should be important for religion, not the church.He didn’t like the church selling indulgences, which were certificates that people bought to reduce their punishment for sins after death.
21What were the Ninety-Five Theses and how did he make them public? They were his criticisms of the church’s selling of indulgences.He nailed these on a church door, then had them published.
22What happened to Martin Luther? He was excommunicated, declared an outlaw who could be killed, and went into hiding.The pope issued a “bull” (order) that pretty much said that Luther’s works were banned.
23What was the Protestant Reformation? Whose ideas triggered this event? It was a revolution that changed how the church was run.A new church was started in Northern Europe—the Lutheran church.Luther’s ideas triggered this, and his followers were called Protestants because they “protested” the church’s corrupt policies.
24What did the Church do as a “counter reformation” The Catholic Church lost many of its members due to the Protestant Reformation.There were meetings called by the Pope to clean things up. (The Council of Trent).As a result, corruption was removed and priests were given better education.
25Where did thinkers and scholars start to gather to share ideas? They gathered at universities all over Europe to share their ideas with each other and with students.
26How did famous Renaissance scientists, artists, and thinkers spread their ideas around Europe? What did they do?These people were viewed as “celebrities” at this time.They were in demand in courts and universities everywhere, so they travelled a lot to share their ideas and knowledge.They visited universities and taught classes, and went to royal courts and shared knowledge.
27What new technology created new way to spread ideas and knowledge? The printing press was a revolutionary new technology that helped to spread ideas and knowledge.It allowed more books to be created and also allowed books to be written in the vernacular (common) language.
28Who invented this technology Who invented this technology? Why was it a better way than the old way of doing things?Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1450 (he was from Germany).The printing press allowed books to be produced quickly and cheaply, which made them much more available to people.
29Describe below three ways that books helped with the spread of knowledge and ideas. They became cheaper and more accessible with the printing press, leading more people to read and write.More books, including the Bible, were printed in the vernacular (the language that ordinary people spoke).Thinkers like Erasmus made money from the books they wrote. Allowing them to travel and spread more ideas.
30How did the increase of printed books affect rates of literacy in Europe? As a result of the increase of books and their being printed in the vernacular languages of people, literacy rates went up a lot.More and more people were reading books on a regular basis.
31Who was Michel de Montaigne Who was Michel de Montaigne? What type of writing did he create that is still used today?He was a Renaissance thinker and French writer. He wrote a book called Les Essais (Essays), in which he invented a new way to write: the essay.In his writings, he explored many ideas, including how to educate children.We still use this form of writing in school today.
32What role do books have in our lives today? Books and the printed word have a very big role in our lives today.We read textbooks, newspapers, magazines, stories, signs and even things like and text messaging.We are required to read on a frequent basis.
33What other technology has helped to spread ideas in our modern-day society? Our society uses books in order to record and disseminate (spread) information.However, newer technologies such as the internet have started to be widely used as a means to record, use, and spread ideas and information.