Presentation on theme: "Professor dr. J. J. Meyer Menno Lievers. WHAT IS THINKING? Conceptual problem? Empirical problem? What is the task of philosophy? Is philosophy a science?"— Presentation transcript:
Empirical problem? No point in doing philosophy. Do research!
The problem Jonathan Bennett, Rationality (1964!) Honey-bees
Descartes (1596-1650) Dualism of mind and body Extension is the essence of body Thinking is the essence of mind
Descartes on thought Thinking occurs with the aid of ideas (Language of thought…) Ideas are innate (inborn) Methodological solipsism - one can describe what a subject thinks by taking into account the thinking subject in isolation from his/her environment Epistemological internalism: a subject can only be said to know that P, iff she can justify P
Locke (1632 - 1704) No innate ideas (à la connectionism…) Thinking is a mental act, not the essence of the mind Thinking requires perception
Kant (1724 - 1804) Synthesis of Descartes and Locke ‘Thoughts without content are empty; intuitions without concepts are blind.’ Copernican turn: the way we perceive reality is a product of our thoughts (thus Harnad’s grounding problem…)
Frege (1848 - 1925) Linguïstic idealism: the way we perceive reality is a product of our language Thoughts are linguistic
Dummett (1925 - ) The Basic Tenet of Analytical Philosophy An account of language does not presuppose an account of thought An account of language yields an account of thought There is no other adequate means by which an account of thought may be given
Thoughts are linguistic The structure of our thoughts equals the structure of sentences of our language The normative rule we ought follow in thinking are the rules of our language Thinking obeys the rules of logic ‘What is meaning?’ becomes the central question in philosophy.
What is meaning? Meaning resides in your head (Descartes, Locke) Meaning is a relation between words and things in reality
Putnam’s Twin-earth Earth: water is H 2 O Twin-earth: water is XYZ What is the meaning of ‘water’? What do twins think about? Semantic externalism
Externalism Semantic externalism: after having been baptized reality determines whether a word has been used correctly or not Externalism in the philosophy of mind: the content of thoughts is determined by the environment of the thinker Epistemological externalism: we can attribute possession of knowledge that P to a subject whether she can justify P or not
Putnam’s machine functionalism Turing machine Functional description Identity mental state determined by input, relations with other mental states, and output Antireductionism: psychology remains an autonomous science
Problems for functionalism Qualia Chinese room Inverted spectrum Absent qualia Chinese people (functional characterization of mental states too wide)
Develoments after functionalism Computational model of thoughts Language of thought hypothesis Modularity of mind Rise of subpersonal psychology
Modules Domainspecific Mandatory operation Limited central access Input systems are fast Shallow output Typical diseaseprocesses Informationally encapsulated Specific neural structure
Rise subpersonal psychology Subdoxastic states Modules Implicit knowledge
Back to meaning Theory of meaning is a theory of understanding Consequence: Philosophy of language is imbedded in the philosophy of mind Meaning is being analysed as a ‘way of thinking’
Gareth Evans Externalism Generality constraint: you can only attribute to a thinking subject possession of the concept F, if and only if he or she cannot only entertain the thought that Fa, but also that Fb Non-conceptual content
Back to ontology: eliminative materialism Scientific realism Impossibility of inter-theoretical reduction Theory-ladenness of perception Meaning-holism Folk-psychology is a false theory
Consequences for AI: 1. Symbol System Hypothesis Employ a rich, recursive compositional language to represent reality Build an adequate representation of reality within a universal symbol system Use input to construct representations of the environment in response to stimuli Process input (possibly into output) Output is a symbolic representation of adequate, suitable responses to the input
Philosophical presuppositions of the SSH Internalism Token-token materialism? Thinking is symbolmanipulation Innate representations? Methodological dualism Thinking normative/logical?
Adaptive (empirism) Thoughts are not propositional (compositional) Externalism? Normativity of thinking? Biologically real? No innate mental properties/knowledge?
AI versus Neurofilosofie Intelligence is a biological phenomenon Representation is a product of our biological constitution Biological materialism ‘Hard’ AI presupposes supervenience and that is nonsense
COURSE SET-UP MAPPING GREAT DEBATES: CAN COMPUTERS THINK? WEB-SITE: http://www.macrovu.com/CCTGeneralInfo.html