Learning Objectives~ Ch. 14 To understand: 1.Values & the value system 2.Western cultural values & factors that influence them, measuring values 3.Personality characteristics & behavior patterns 4.Lifestyles include activities, interests, & opinions & are used for psychographic applications in marketing
Psychographics -“A description of consumers on the basis of their psychological & behavioral characteristics.” -Which are more powerful, demographics or psychographics and why?
Values Value system Values –Global –Terminal –Instrumental –Domain-specific Think: what are your values & how do they reflect in the marketplace? “... enduring beliefs [that] a given behavior or outcome is desirable or good.”
Values of Western Culture Materialism Home Work & play Individualism Family & children Health Hedonism Youth Authenticity The environment Technology Any others you see?
Changing Values Why values change: how are your generation’s values different from your grandparents? Influences on values –Culture –Ethnic identification –Social class –Age
Environmental preservation has become an important value to U.S. consumers. This Sun Chips ad shows the brand as environmentally responsible because it uses solar energy in one of its plants. Courtesy Frito-Lay, Inc.
Culture & Values Individualism & collectivism Uncertainty avoidance Masculinity versus femininity Power distance
Value Measurement Inferring values from cultural milieu Means-end chain analysis: Attributes of product are important. Value questionnaires –Rokeach Value Survey –List of values
Means-End Chain Analysis
Personality “... distinctive patterns of behaviors, tendencies, qualities or personal dispositions that make one... different from another & lead to a consistent response to environmental stimuli.” -Not always an ample indicator of cb
Research Approaches to Personality Psychoanalytic—stages: –Oral –Anal –Phallic Trait theories Phenomenological—Locus of control Social-psychological theories—Compliant aggressive versus detached Behavioral
Personality Characteristics & CB Optimal stimulation level Dogmatism Need for uniqueness Creativity Susceptibility to influence Frugality Self-monitoring National character Competitiveness
Lifestyles Activities, interests, & opinions Market segmentation (e.g., golfers) Communication (e.g., blogs for wine enthusiasts) New product ideas; (e.g., toe shoes) “... manifestations or actual patterns of behavior.”
Activities, Interests, & Opinions
Values, Personality & Lifestyles Values & Lifestyle Survey (VALS) Responses to a proprietary survey place a consumer in one of 8 categories (innovator, thinker, believer, achiever, striver, experiencer, survivor, maker) The survey is available at: w.shtml Other applied psychographic research –NOP World’s LifeMatrix –Yankelovich MindBase