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Design Thinking & Innovation With a Focus on Apple Christopher Staton.

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Presentation on theme: "Design Thinking & Innovation With a Focus on Apple Christopher Staton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Design Thinking & Innovation With a Focus on Apple Christopher Staton

2 Outline & Major Issues History History Design Thinking Design Thinking Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage Products as Platforms Products as Platforms Open vs. Closed Loop Open vs. Closed Loop Prototyping, Testing, Refinement Prototyping, Testing, Refinement Examples Examples Discussion and Multiple Choice Question Discussion and Multiple Choice Question

3 History 1976: Introduction of Apple I 1976: Introduction of Apple I 1980: Apple III and IPO 1980: Apple III and IPO 1983: Apple Lisa 1983: Apple Lisa 1984: Macintosh and Ridley Scott directed Super Bowl commercial 1984: Macintosh and Ridley Scott directed Super Bowl commercial 1985: Jobs ousted (starts NeXT) 1985: Jobs ousted (starts NeXT) : Series of product flops : Series of product flops : Attempts at reinvention (IBM and Motorola help with new OS platform) : Attempts at reinvention (IBM and Motorola help with new OS platform)

4 History 1997: Jobs reinstated as CEO after NeXT is bought 1997: Jobs reinstated as CEO after NeXT is bought 1998: iMac, iMovie, Final Cut Pro (the iLife suite would be completed in 2002 with the introduction of iPhoto) 1998: iMac, iMovie, Final Cut Pro (the iLife suite would be completed in 2002 with the introduction of iPhoto) 2001: iPod, Retail stores 2001: iPod, Retail stores : iPod Nano, Shuffle & Touch : iPod Nano, Shuffle & Touch 2003: iTunes (market leader for online music) 2003: iTunes (market leader for online music)

5 History : Intel chips used in Mac Pro and MacBook Pro, while Power Mac, iBook and Powerbook were retired : Intel chips used in Mac Pro and MacBook Pro, while Power Mac, iBook and Powerbook were retired 2007: iPhone, Apple TV, removed “Computer” from corporate name 2007: iPhone, Apple TV, removed “Computer” from corporate name 2010: iPad 2010: iPad

6 Design Thinking Definition: Innovation powered through understanding and the direct observation of what people need and desire, like or dislike Definition: Innovation powered through understanding and the direct observation of what people need and desire, like or dislike Apple Business Opportunity: the computers used for automating business processes could also become a wide- spread personal device Apple Business Opportunity: the computers used for automating business processes could also become a wide- spread personal device

7 Design Thinking Design includes packaging and cords Design includes packaging and cords Apple sells presents within presents Apple sells presents within presents Design is not static Design is not static Continued, motivated innovation (colors & materials) Continued, motivated innovation (colors & materials) Tool for imagining experiences and giving them a desirable form Tool for imagining experiences and giving them a desirable form As our basic needs are met, we expect increasingly sophisticated experiences As our basic needs are met, we expect increasingly sophisticated experiences Usability Tests Usability Tests Mouse, arrows, copy/paste (consumer feedback) Mouse, arrows, copy/paste (consumer feedback)

8 Design Thinking Apple Business Problem: users would need to be engaged in computers to benefit from them Apple Business Problem: users would need to be engaged in computers to benefit from them Business Solutions: Business Solutions: We need to make people love our products so they will spend enough time to learn how to use them We need to make people love our products so they will spend enough time to learn how to use them Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication Apple products noteworthy for what they don’t contain Apple products noteworthy for what they don’t contain Design with the user in mind! Design with the user in mind! Who is using our product and what are they trying to accomplish? Who is using our product and what are they trying to accomplish?

9 Design Thinking Approaches Human centered: direct observation Human centered: direct observation Try early & often: rapid experimentation and prototyping Try early & often: rapid experimentation and prototyping Seek outside help: co-create w/ customers Seek outside help: co-create w/ customers Blend projects: short-term incremental vs. revolutionary Blend projects: short-term incremental vs. revolutionary Budget to pace of innovation: ideas happen quickly, route to market is long Budget to pace of innovation: ideas happen quickly, route to market is long Find talent: hire from interdisciplinary programs Find talent: hire from interdisciplinary programs Design for the cycle: inspiration  ideation  implementation Design for the cycle: inspiration  ideation  implementation

10 Characteristics of Design Thinkers Empathy: imagine world from multiple perspectives Empathy: imagine world from multiple perspectives Integrative thinking: rely on analytical processes and see all aspects Integrative thinking: rely on analytical processes and see all aspects Optimism: at least one potential solution is better than existing alternatives Optimism: at least one potential solution is better than existing alternatives Experimentalism: disruptive innovation vs. incremental Experimentalism: disruptive innovation vs. incremental Collaboration: increasing complexity of products displaces the myth of the lone genius Collaboration: increasing complexity of products displaces the myth of the lone genius

11 Apple’s Competitive Advantage Creating a simple, easy-to-adopt solution that is not easy to duplicate Creating a simple, easy-to-adopt solution that is not easy to duplicate Everything that is easy has already been done Everything that is easy has already been done Progress through elimination of clutter Progress through elimination of clutter Painstaking thought goes into simplicity Painstaking thought goes into simplicity Find the key underlying principle of the problem Find the key underlying principle of the problem Innovation leads to differentiation and competitive advantage Innovation leads to differentiation and competitive advantage

12 Products as Platforms First product is designed on architecture that will accommodate development and production of the derivative products envisioned First product is designed on architecture that will accommodate development and production of the derivative products envisioned Benefit to companies Benefit to companies Time and resources for design effort on initial product leveraged for future products Time and resources for design effort on initial product leveraged for future products Quicker ramp-up, greater reliability, lower cost (reuse of processes) Quicker ramp-up, greater reliability, lower cost (reuse of processes) Benefit to customers Benefit to customers Less repair, maintenance and service; low learning curve  easy transition through multiple products Less repair, maintenance and service; low learning curve  easy transition through multiple products

13 Open vs. Closed Loop Management Decision: Closed Loop Management Decision: Closed Loop Apple owns entire system Apple owns entire system Hardware, software, OS  seamless integration Hardware, software, OS  seamless integration In a world that celebrates collaboration, open platforms, third party developers, community and transparency, Apple is an outlier In a world that celebrates collaboration, open platforms, third party developers, community and transparency, Apple is an outlier iPhone now has designer platform and a host of dedicated apps iPhone now has designer platform and a host of dedicated apps

14 Prototyping, Testing, Refinement Apple’s Previous Business Process Apple’s Previous Business Process Marketing, engineering, user experience requirement documents reviewed by executive committee Marketing, engineering, user experience requirement documents reviewed by executive committee Design group gets budget and team leader Design group gets budget and team leader Proposal submitted regarding how team will meet needs Proposal submitted regarding how team will meet needs Estimate figures for release date, ad cycle, pricing details, etc. Estimate figures for release date, ad cycle, pricing details, etc. Apple’s Current Business Process Apple’s Current Business Process If you have an idea, speak up! Then…. If you have an idea, speak up! Then….

15 Prototyping, Testing, Refinement Prototype Prototype Rapid, look, feel, interaction Rapid, look, feel, interaction Test Test Over and over and over Over and over and over Refine Refine Incremental improvements over time Incremental improvements over time Prototype vs. final product might look like a revolutionary step Prototype vs. final product might look like a revolutionary step

16 Prototyping, Testing, Refinement Inspiration Inspiration Expect success Expect success Ideation Ideation Brainstorming Brainstorming Implementation Implementation Execute vision Execute vision

17 Examples Bank of America: Keep the Change Bank of America: Keep the Change Round up debit purchases to nearest dollar Round up debit purchases to nearest dollar Mimics behavior, saves time, painless, invisible Mimics behavior, saves time, painless, invisible Gratifying monthly statements showing savings accumulation Gratifying monthly statements showing savings accumulation Kaiser: I left my shift on time! Kaiser: I left my shift on time! Brainstorming and prototyping w/ cross-functional team Brainstorming and prototyping w/ cross-functional team Software used to record and recall patient notes quickly Software used to record and recall patient notes quickly During shift changes, nurses passed on patient info to new nurses in front of patient During shift changes, nurses passed on patient info to new nurses in front of patient Human-centered approach: better care for patients, while nurses left hospital by end of shift Human-centered approach: better care for patients, while nurses left hospital by end of shift

18 Examples Apple: We are a team Apple: We are a team Changed distribution and factory processes to accommodate manufacturers, saving time and money  in return they continually asked manufacturers what they could do for Apple Changed distribution and factory processes to accommodate manufacturers, saving time and money  in return they continually asked manufacturers what they could do for Apple Edison: Platforms and Research Edison: Platforms and Research Light bulb could not become widespread without an electric power generation and transmission system, so he invented that too Light bulb could not become widespread without an electric power generation and transmission system, so he invented that too R&D lab broke mold of lone genius and allowed Edison to match needs with technologically feasible projects R&D lab broke mold of lone genius and allowed Edison to match needs with technologically feasible projects Viable business strategy could convert into customer value and market opportunity Viable business strategy could convert into customer value and market opportunity

19 Discussion Since Apple says it does not conduct market research, how have they been able to release so many successful products over the last decade? Since Apple says it does not conduct market research, how have they been able to release so many successful products over the last decade? When Jobs returned to Apple in the mid- 1990s he pared 15 product lines down to three. Why would he do this? When Jobs returned to Apple in the mid- 1990s he pared 15 product lines down to three. Why would he do this?

20 Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a design thinker? Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a design thinker? A. Empathy A. Empathy B. Integrative Thinking B. Integrative Thinking C. Optimism C. Optimism D. Collaboration D. Collaboration E. None of the above E. None of the above

21 Works Cited adership/design%20thinking%20at%20Ap ple.pdf adership/design%20thinking%20at%20Ap ple.pdf adership/design%20thinking%20at%20Ap ple.pdf adership/design%20thinking%20at%20Ap ple.pdf content/uploads/2009/12/HBR-on-Design- Thinking.pdf content/uploads/2009/12/HBR-on-Design- Thinking.pdf content/uploads/2009/12/HBR-on-Design- Thinking.pdf content/uploads/2009/12/HBR-on-Design- Thinking.pdf


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