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Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians A State-of-the-Art Continuing Education Seminar: for the Special Libraries.

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Presentation on theme: "Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians A State-of-the-Art Continuing Education Seminar: for the Special Libraries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians A State-of-the-Art Continuing Education Seminar: for the Special Libraries Association June 6, 2004, Nashville TN.

2 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Sponsored by the SLA Engineering, Biomedical & Life Sciences Divisions and Aerospace section of SLA-SNG Moderated by: Cynthia Bennington, SLA/ Eng Support from EBSCO

3 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Lorri Zipperer, Zipperer Project Management Rebecca Corliss, Schiff Hardin, LLP Sara Tompson, Packer Engineering, Inc. Systems Thinking for Librarians

4 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians “Our actions create our reality.” Peter Senge 5 th Discipline, 1990

5 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking Class Objectives Explore core concepts. Identify effects on information center interactions within an organization. Identify affects on librarian’s interactions with all levels of the organization, immediate reports and exterior clients. Construct how acceptance changes an individual’s decision-making. Determine how the tools affect librarian’s strategic planning thought processes.

6 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 References and Tools Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learning organization Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization Select Bibliography Glossary

7 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Logistics Three section program 8am- noon  Both lecture and group / team exercises Break 10:00 to 10:30 am Wrap up by noon Systems Thinking for Librarians

8 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Will you please … Introduce yourself Share one key reason for attending the class Systems Thinking for Librarians

9 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 PART ONE 1.1 What is Systems Thinking 1.2 Am I A Systems Thinker? 1.3 Questions & Recap

10 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 What is Systems Thinking? Interconnectedness  A set of elements that interact to shape behavior Learning Organization Key movers  Forrester (1961)  Center for Organizational Learning / MIT (1989)  Argyris (Teaching Smart People How to Learn, 1991)  Senge (5 th Discipline 1990) Class Section 1.1

11 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking: Proven Value Complex problems that involve helping many actors see the connectedness of the “big picture” and not just their part of it. Recurring problems or those that have been made worse by past attempts to fix them Issues where action affects (or is affected by) the environment surrounding the issue. Problems whose solutions are not obvious Class Section 1.1

12 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking: Basic Concepts Everything is connected to everything else You can never do just one thing Different people in the same structure will produce similar results From “either/or” to “both/and” There is no away to throw things to The easiest way out is the fastest way back in Profound changes can take place in ways we cannot foretell The map is not the territory An answer is a question’s way of asking a new question Class Section 1.1

13 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Five Phases of Systems Thinking 1. Structure the problem 2. Understand causal loops and feedback 3. Model the dynamic relationships 4. Use scenarios to plan and model affects of actions taken 5. Implement and share learnings with the organization Class Section 1.1

14 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians How Does Systems Thinking Pertain to the Library Profession?  Allows information work to be effective and innovative, not isolated  Situates the Information Center as proactive not reactive Class Section 1.1

15 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Facilitates achievement of SLA Competencies Will highlight a few today Class Section 1.1

16 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Professional Competencies: Aligning the information organization with key stakeholders Assesses and communicates the value of the information organization Builds a dynamic collection of information resources based on deep understanding of clients Class Section 1.2

17 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Professional Competencies, con’t Develops and maintains a portfolio of effective and aligned information services. Conducts market research to identify concepts for new or enhanced information solutions for these groups. Class Section 1.2

18 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Personal SLA Competencies The special librarian: Sees the big picture Creates partnerships and alliances Employs a team approach; recognizes the balance of collaborating, leading and following Class Section 1.2

19 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Barriers to Systems Thinking Resources (financial and people) Cultural and value-based Leadership Knowledge (ie identification of the problem) Process-oriented Time constraints Strategic operation and planning IT Class Section 1.2

20 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians: Exploring Impact Stories of Engagement Lorri Rebecca Sara Class Section 1.2

21 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Are You a Systems Thinker? A Systems Thinker Perceives …  The whole whose elements continually affect each other over time and operate toward a common purpose.  The “Big Picture”  The interrelatedness of forces/nothing exists in a vacuum Info Center example  The interdependencies means no single “right” answer Class Section 1.2 Fieldbk, pg 90

22 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking Assessment Complete in five minutes Talley each column Discuss results There are no incorrect responses so be honest with yourself Class Section 1.2

23 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Readiness Assessment - Continuum Class Section 1.2 F O S R N Goal - Top 2

24 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Questions & Recap Basic concepts of systems thinking Why this class? Where are we on the journey to “systemsness”? Class Section 1.3

25 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 PART TWO: 2.1 Setting the Stage 2.2 Why Use Stories? 2.3 Problem Identification & Digging Deeper 2.4 Diagramming System Influences 2.5 Questions & Recap

26 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 A Typical Morning Conversation … Class Section 2.1

27 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Does this Sound Familiar ? Pflom and Meyer, established yet old- fashioned firm New librarian shut out Info gathering inefficient and unreliable Solutions require a new way of thinking …. Class Section 2.1

28 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Value of Stories Illustrates a theory Allows listeners to empathize more broadly Resonates with listeners  SLA storytelling models Class Section 2.2

29 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Value of Stories “If you have chosen the right story and you tell that story in a certain way, then not only do listeners understand the story... but they also begin to imagine a story in their own life... They begin to draw on their own experiences, their own knowledge, their own understanding, and they start to imagine possibilities for themselves.” Class Section 2.2 “Making Change Happen: Steve Denning Tells the Story of Storytelling” Information Outlook Vol. 5, January 2001

30 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Identifying the Problem Problem Structure Modeling Digging Deeper / The Five Whys Class Section 2.3

31 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Problem Structure Modeling The problem is: Important Chronic Limited in scope Class Section 2.3

32 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Exploring the Problem: The Five Whys Why X 5 to get at:  Who, What, When, Where, Why What are you trying to accomplish Determine the root cause Identify possible solutions Limitations of the 5 Whys Class Section 2.3 FieldBk pages

33 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 The Five Whys Time Place Root Object Subject Objective Why? Cause Why? Class Section 2.3

34 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Exercise: Pflom’s Problem And the problem is…. Review the story Identify key processes or issues that resonate as problematic and support the ineffective relationship Post for further discussion to crystallize thoughts Class Section 2.3

35 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Pflom Problem: con’t Individually assess the “why’s” that may have contributed to the situation Collect them for discussion to “drill down” to the root cause Class Section 2.3

36 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words … As a systems thinking tool, diagrams: Illustrate cause and effect relationships Facilitate communication Create the “a-ha” experience Class Section 2.4

37 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Ways of Seeing Things Diagramming System Behavior Feedback Causal Diagrams  Several sample techniques  Key terms  Illustrating a Story Archetypes  Templates of Behavior Class Section 2.4

38 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Importance of Feedback “ The practice of systems thinking starts with understanding a simple concept called feedback that shows how actions can reinforce or counteract each other.” Peter Senge Class Section 2.4

39 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Computer Diagramming Tool for observing patterns in large, complex situations Epidemiological in nature Software available Beyond the scope of this class Class Section 2.4 cmms/project_mngt.htm

40 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Behavior Patterns 1. Fixes that Fail 2. Limits to Growth 3. Shifting the Burden Class Section 2.4 Time

41 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 The Role of Delay : Acknowledge delay as a factor in decision making Respect delay as an element to understand success or failure Regard delay as a force in determining value of change Class Section 2.4

42 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 The Role of Delay: Serving ACME Class Section 2.4 Key project High demand 24/7 service Guaranteed 4 hour turn around

43 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 The Role of Delay : Class Section 2.4 Time recorded hours/bills submitted ACME requests Adherence ACME leaves!

44 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Visualizing the System : Reinforcing and Balancing Loops Reinforcing Loop Balancing Loop + Target or Goal Class Section

45 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Core Loops: a Few Examples 1. Fixes that Fail Growth process Limiting process 3. Shifting the Burden R B Class Section Limits to Growth Growth Process = R einforces behavior Limiting Process = B alances activity

46 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Visualizing the System: Steps in a Process Perform the exercise with a group representing multiple disciplines Keep it manageable Start with a central element/service Adapted from: Kim D. Guidelines for Drawing Causal Loop Diagrams. Pegagus Communications, 1995 Class Section 2.4

47 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Steps in a Process, con’t Identify key variables Don’t think of loops as stone tablets Avoid focus on details Air assumptions Adapted from: Kim D. Guidelines for Drawing Causal Loop Diagrams. Pegagus Communications, 1995 Class Section 2.4

48 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Pflom Story: Balancing Loop (-) Growing Action Limiting constraints Key Element or Corrective Action Class Section 2.4 Leverage Expertise Librarian isolation Cost Recovery Client Activity Client Bills Research Quality Delay

49 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Pflom Story: Reinforcing Loop (+) Revenue Client Bills Staff use services more Info expertise applied more More team involvement Client satisfaction Info Staff integration Staff satisfaction More support for Info projects More info resources Business case for info staff improved Info gathering

50 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Archetypes: Seeing Patterns Accidental Adversaries Fixes that Fail Limits to Growth Shifting the Burden Tragedy of the Commons Class Section 2.4

51 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Archetypes: Why Bother? Test mental models Provide consistent representations of hypotheses that contribute to complexity Explore hypotheses to illustrate organizational behavior in a variety of venues. Class Section 2.4

52 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Archetype: Fixes that Fail The problem symptom Archetypes Exercise Unintended consequence Class Section Delay

53 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Archetype: Fixes that Fail Cost recovery initiated Client leaves Client Bills Isolation Quality Expertise leveraged The problem symptom Fixes that Fail Unintended consequence Class Section Delay

54 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Archetypes: Making Change Visualize, study and implement change projects Identify positive reinforcing loops Do’s and Don’ts  Do: run small tests, learn from the experience, explore effectiveness regularly  Don’t: stop at the identification process, see loop as “etched in stone” Class Section 2.4

55 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Questions & Recap Problem definition and the five whys Diagramming methods and dialogue What to do next? Class Section 2.5

56 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 PART THREE 3.1 Intro and Personal Awareness 3.2 Ladders of Inference 3.3 Discussion and Dialogue 3.4 Wrap Up

57 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Role of Personal Awareness in Systems Thinking Mental Models Ladders of Inference Discussion and Dialogue Class Section 3.1

58 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Mental Models Are deeply ingrained assumptions Are tacit, not explicit Can derail systems thinking Need tools to expose them  Left hand column  Ladders of inference Class Section 3.1

59 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Ladders of Inference “A common mental pathway of increasing abstraction, often leading to misguided beliefs" Chris Argyris AKA “Leap(s) of Abstraction” Do NOT climb up the wrong ladder! Class Section 3.2 Fieldbk, p. 243

60 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Ladders of Inference, con’t Ladder rests on: 1) observable data and 2) one’s past experience - both are solid. Rungs move further away from the concrete. Class Section 3.2

61 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Steps Toward Understanding 1 st Rung: Select data to focus on 2 nd Rung: Add own meaning to data 3 rd Rung: Make assumptions re data - can be more than one rung Class Section 3.2

62 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Steps Toward Understanding Next Rung: Draw conclusions - can be more than one rung Next Rung: Develop, add to beliefs about world - worldview Top Rung: Take actions based on beliefs Class Section 3.2

63 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Climbing the Ladder: an Exercise Start from the bottom of the ladder Build up – one assumption is usually based upon another and the inaccurate belief system grows. Brainstorm the corrective behaviors Share “tales from the front” cases. Class Section 3.2

64 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Recap: Tool for Awareness MUST  filter data,  decide what is important,  develop belief system, and  act upon it. HOWEVER, one can develop inaccurate/harmful, etc. belief systems and views. AWARENESS and PERSONAL MASTERY can keep you from climbing up the wrong ladder! Class Section 3.2

65 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Discussion and Dialogue Constructive interaction with colleagues promoted continued learning Librarians can apply reference interview skills to other interactions Modes of conversation have different elements and support different goals Class Section 3.3

66 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Goals of Conversing Styles Advocacy  Marketing leverage  Arguing for one point of view Discussion  Team consensus builder  Goal oriented or task-based focus Dialogue  Exploration and determining shared meaning  Discovery and insight  Collective inquiry and mindfulness Class Section 3.3

67 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Setting the Stage for Dialogue Seek to catalyze insight and discover the process of thought. Encourage participants to develop a shared intention. Create a “safe harbor” environment where participants can say what they feel in a constructive manner. Class Section 3.3

68 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Setting the Stage for Dialogue Listen not only to participate but with an openness to change. Be aware of your own thinking Manage conflict effectively and constructively Abandon the notion of the “right” answer Class Section 3.3 Fieldbk, 375

69 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Dialogue at Pflom Step into the librarian’s shoes Structure an opportunity for dialogue Class Section 3.3

70 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Recap Do you see a way you can apply systems thinking and tools to your situation right now?  Stories and Scenarios  5 Whys  Causal Loop Diagrams  Archetypes Class Section 3.4

71 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Systems Thinking for Librarians Wrap Up Refer back to desired goals from morning Please fill out evaluation form Please leave cards if you are willing to give us feedback down the road. Presentation available at THANK YOU! Class Section 3.4

72 Zipperer/Corliss/Tompson SLA / June 6 th / 2004 Continue the Conversation Lorri Zipperer  Rebecca Corliss  Sara Tompson  Class Section 3.4


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