Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Historical Review of Critical Theory ( III ) - Antonio Gramsci Professor Sophia M. L. Wen Lecture at National Hang-Zhou Teachers College & Beijing.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Historical Review of Critical Theory ( III ) - Antonio Gramsci Professor Sophia M. L. Wen Lecture at National Hang-Zhou Teachers College & Beijing."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Historical Review of Critical Theory ( III ) - Antonio Gramsci Professor Sophia M. L. Wen Lecture at National Hang-Zhou Teachers College & Beijing Normal University on May 10, 2007 ~ June 2007 on May 10, 2007 ~ June 2007

2 The outline The Overview of Gramsci The Overview of Gramsci The Life of Gramsci The Life of Gramsci The Ideas of Gramsci The Ideas of Gramsci Gramsci’s Idea of Hegemony Gramsci’s Idea of Hegemony Cultural Hegemony Cultural Hegemony Gramsci’s Idea of History Gramsci’s Idea of History Culture & Education Culture & Education Intellectuals & Education Intellectuals & Education Traditional Intellectuals vs. Organical Intellectuals Traditional Intellectuals vs. Organical Intellectuals Human Praxis & Intersubjectivity Human Praxis & Intersubjectivity Implications for Education Implications for Education

3 The Overview of Gramsci Birth: January 23, 1891 Death: April 27, 1937 Birth: January 23, 1891 Death: April 27, 1937January 231891April 271937January 231891April 271937 In 1922 Gramsci travelled to Russia, he met his wife, Julia Schucht, a young violinist with whom Gramsci had two sons. In 1922 Gramsci travelled to Russia, he met his wife, Julia Schucht, a young violinist with whom Gramsci had two sons.Russia Notable ideas: Notable ideas: Hegemony, Organic Intellectual Hegemony. An Italian writer, politician and political theorist.Italianwriterpoliticianpolitical theorist Arrested in 1926, kept in prison Arrested in 1926, kept in prison 1928 – 1937, where he wrote 1928 – 1937, where he wrote the Prison Notebook. the Prison Notebook. Gramsci is seen by many as one of the most important Marxist thinkers of the twentieth century, in particular as a key thinker in the development of Western Marxism. Gramsci is seen by many as one of the most important Marxist thinkers of the twentieth century, in particular as a key thinker in the development of Western Marxism.

4 The Life of Gramsci He was the fourth of seven sons of Francesco Gramsci, a low-level official. He was the fourth of seven sons of Francesco Gramsci, a low-level official. Suffered from health problems: a malformation of the spine owing to a childhood accident left him hunch-backed and underdeveloped. Suffered from health problems: a malformation of the spine owing to a childhood accident left him hunch-backed and underdeveloped. A brilliant student, in 1911 Gramsci won a scholarship that allowed him to study at the University of Turin. At Turin, he read literature and took a keen interest in linguistics. A brilliant student, in 1911 Gramsci won a scholarship that allowed him to study at the University of Turin. At Turin, he read literature and took a keen interest in linguistics.1911University of Turin literaturelinguistics1911University of Turin literaturelinguistics Gramsci found the city at the time going through a process of industrialization. Gramsci found the city at the time going through a process of industrialization.industrialization Factories recruiting workers from poorer regions, and trade unions became established, and the first industrial social conflicts started to emerge, which gave him continuity with his native culture. Factories recruiting workers from poorer regions, and trade unions became established, and the first industrial social conflicts started to emerge, which gave him continuity with his native culture.

5 The Ideas of Gramsci (I) His writings are heavily concerned with the analysis of c c c c c uuuu llll tttt uuuu rrrr eeee and political l l l l l eeee aaaa dddd eeee rrrr ssss hhhh iiii pppp and he is notable as a highly original thinker within the M M M M M aaaa rrrr xxxx iiii ssss tttt tradition. He is renowned for his cccc oooo nnnn cccc eeee pppp tttt of c c c c c uuuu llll tttt uuuu rrrr aaaa llll h h h h eeee gggg eeee mmmm oooo nnnn yyyy as a means of maintaining the s s s s s tttt aaaa tttt eeee in a c c c c c aaaa pppp iiii tttt aaaa llll iiii ssss tttt society. For Gramsci the workers' councils were the proper means of enabling workers to take control of the task of organizing production.

6 The Ideas of Gramsci (II) – Hegemony 1 Hegemony (Greek: ἡ γεμονία hēgemon í a) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force. Hegemony (Greek: ἡ γεμονία hēgemon í a) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force.Greekdominancethreat of forceGreekdominancethreat of force Hegemony results in the empowerment of certain cultural beliefs, values, and practices to the submersion and partial exclusion of others. Hegemony results in the empowerment of certain cultural beliefs, values, and practices to the submersion and partial exclusion of others.culturalbeliefs valuesculturalbeliefs values Hegemony controls the way new ideas are rejected or become naturalized in a process that subtly alters notions of common sense in a given society. (煮蛙效應) Hegemony controls the way new ideas are rejected or become naturalized in a process that subtly alters notions of common sense in a given society. (煮蛙效應) Theories of hegemony attempt to explain how dominant groups or individuals (known as hegemons) can maintain their power -- the capacity of dominant classes to persuade subordinate ones to accept, adopt and internalize their values and norms. (台灣的皇 民化即為一例) Theories of hegemony attempt to explain how dominant groups or individuals (known as hegemons) can maintain their power -- the capacity of dominant classes to persuade subordinate ones to accept, adopt and internalize their values and norms. (台灣的皇 民化即為一例)classes

7 The Ideas of Gramsci (II) – Hegemony 2 Hegemony is tied to the conception of the capitalist state, which Gramsci claims rules through force plus consent. Hegemony is tied to the conception of the capitalist state, which Gramsci claims rules through force plus consent. state Under modern capitalism, the bourgeoisie can maintain its economic control by allowing certain demands made by trade unions and mass political parties within civil society to be met by the political sphere. (此即公民社會與政治團體掛勾之因) Under modern capitalism, the bourgeoisie can maintain its economic control by allowing certain demands made by trade unions and mass political parties within civil society to be met by the political sphere. (此即公民社會與政治團體掛勾之因)bourgeoisietrade unionspolitical partiesbourgeoisietrade unionspolitical parties The bourgeoisie engages in ‘ passive revolution ’ by going beyond its immediate economic interests. (此等思想下的教育也講求速成、速效) The bourgeoisie engages in ‘ passive revolution ’ by going beyond its immediate economic interests. (此等思想下的教育也講求速成、速效)

8 The Ideas of Gramsci (II) – Cultural Hegemony Hegemony consists of political power that flows from intellectual and moral leadership, authority or consensus, as distinguished from mere armed force. Hegemony consists of political power that flows from intellectual and moral leadership, authority or consensus, as distinguished from mere armed force.leadershipconsensusleadershipconsensus Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher. Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher.concept Marxist philosopherconcept Marxist philosopher It means that a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class, that everyday practices and shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex systems of domination. It means that a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class, that everyday practices and shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex systems of domination.

9 Gramsci’s Ideas of History History is defined by human praxis and therefore includes human will. History is defined by human praxis and therefore includes human will. Nonetheless, will-power cannot achieve anything it likes in any given situation. Nonetheless, will-power cannot achieve anything it likes in any given situation. Ideas cannot be understood outside their social and historical context. Ideas cannot be understood outside their social and historical context. All meaning derives from the relation between human practical activity (or 'praxis') and the "objective" historical and social processes of which it is a part. All meaning derives from the relation between human practical activity (or 'praxis') and the "objective" historical and social processes of which it is a part.praxis

10 The Ideas of Gramsci (III) – Culture & Education 1 At his trial (1926), Gramsci's prosecutor famously stated, "For twenty years we must stop this brain from functioning". At his trial (1926), Gramsci's prosecutor famously stated, "For twenty years we must stop this brain from functioning". 教育企圖改變的也就是「人腦」! 只有制度改變,但人的思想若不變, 也將無濟於事,徒勞無功。

11 The Ideas of Gramsci (III) – Culture & Education 2 His ideas about an education system for this purpose correspond with the notion of critical pedagogy and popular education as theorized and practiced in later decades by Paulo Freire in Brazil. His ideas about an education system for this purpose correspond with the notion of critical pedagogy and popular education as theorized and practiced in later decades by Paulo Freire in Brazil.critical pedagogypopular educationPaulo FreireBrazilcritical pedagogypopular educationPaulo FreireBrazil For this reason, partisans of adult and popular education consider Gramsci an important voice to this day. For this reason, partisans of adult and popular education consider Gramsci an important voice to this day.

12 The Ideas of Gramsci (IV) - Intellectuals and Education Gramsci stated that all men are intellectuals, in that all have intellectual and rational faculties, but not all men have the social function of intellectuals. Gramsci stated that all men are intellectuals, in that all have intellectual and rational faculties, but not all men have the social function of intellectuals. He claimed that modern intellectuals were not simply talkers, but directors and organizers who helped build society and produce hegemony by means of ideological apparatuses such as education and the media. He claimed that modern intellectuals were not simply talkers, but directors and organizers who helped build society and produce hegemony by means of ideological apparatuses such as education and the media.educationmediaeducationmedia

13 Traditional vs. Organical Intellectuals Seeing itself (wrongly) as a class apart from society. They simply describe social life in accordance with scientific rules. Calling for a kind of education simply introduce ideology. The thinking groups which every class produces from its own ranks 'organically‘. They a a a a a rrrr tttt iiii cccc uuuu llll aaaa tttt eeee through the language of culture, the feelings and experiences which the masses could not express for themselves. Renovating and make critical of the status quo the already existing intellectual activity of the masses.

14 Human Praxis & Intersubjectivity The concept of an objective universe outside of human history and human praxis was analogous to belief in God. There could be no objectivity, but only a universal iiii nnnn tttt eeee rrrr ssss uuuu bbbb jjjj eeee cccc tttt iiii vvvv iiii tttt yyyy to be established in a future communist society. Materialism resulted from a lack of critical thought. The proletariat’s status as a dependent class. It is necessary to effectively challenge the ideologies of the educated classes, and to present philosophy in a more sophisticated guise, and attempt to genuinely understand their opponents’ views. (教育需要培養批判思考能力)

15 The Implications for Education (I) Gramsci 重新詮釋「人」的哲學 – 真實不是自生,而是 人造就出來的。 Gramsci 重新詮釋「人」的哲學 – 真實不是自生,而是 人造就出來的。 階級戰爭不限於經濟和政治,而及於社會文化和意識型 態 階級戰爭不限於經濟和政治,而及於社會文化和意識型 態 意識文化是點滴的工程 – 生產製造  知識傳播  文化意 識形成 意識文化是點滴的工程 – 生產製造  知識傳播  文化意 識形成 破除意識型態霸權的方式:教育人成為有機的發展體 – 有活動力、有自信心、有新思維者。 破除意識型態霸權的方式:教育人成為有機的發展體 – 有活動力、有自信心、有新思維者。 天生我才必有用,不是金字塔頂端者的菁英才是世界的 要角 天生我才必有用,不是金字塔頂端者的菁英才是世界的 要角 教育應該培養激進的批判者 - 從歷史唯物論到批判的人 文主義觀 – 因為政治可以操弄群眾意見,教育、宗教和 文化也都能維繫霸權 教育應該培養激進的批判者 - 從歷史唯物論到批判的人 文主義觀 – 因為政治可以操弄群眾意見,教育、宗教和 文化也都能維繫霸權

16 The Implications for Education (II) 科層體制和大眾媒體均是霸權的溫床。 科層體制和大眾媒體均是霸權的溫床。 意識型態將在公民社會中以民主的形式出現 – 以合法掩 護非法。 意識型態將在公民社會中以民主的形式出現 – 以合法掩 護非法。 權威可來自: 1. 中央集權、 2. 階層體制(科學與工業管 理)、 3. 宗教來世觀(禁欲自制)、 4. 抗拒改變的頑強 份子(順從傳統)。 權威可來自: 1. 中央集權、 2. 階層體制(科學與工業管 理)、 3. 宗教來世觀(禁欲自制)、 4. 抗拒改變的頑強 份子(順從傳統)。 神秘化和神聖化容易成為致命的倫理意識型態。 神秘化和神聖化容易成為致命的倫理意識型態。 教育要募心,不是要控腦。 教育要募心,不是要控腦。 A consequence of the domination is that education offers fewer occasions for critical thinking and becomes increasingly blind to the realities of domination but be obedient to conformism, pragmatism, Taylorism (fordism), or even Americanism etc. A consequence of the domination is that education offers fewer occasions for critical thinking and becomes increasingly blind to the realities of domination but be obedient to conformism, pragmatism, Taylorism (fordism), or even Americanism etc.

17 Stop is just at the very inception of next moving.


Download ppt "The Historical Review of Critical Theory ( III ) - Antonio Gramsci Professor Sophia M. L. Wen Lecture at National Hang-Zhou Teachers College & Beijing."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google