Stereotypes (Scare-o-types) ignore individuals Personality CultureSituation Stereotypes are ways we generalise (patterns and repeated) behaviour. Usually, different (negative) behaviour to ourselves. Behaviour / Action
Personality and Culture Do cultures affect personality? Are some people / cultures more ……… Relationship Task
Unpeeling the personal layers Personality (Is it separate or part of culture?) Think Sensation Intuition Feeling ME “Am I rational analytical thinker and is that the kind of culture I come from OR Am I a synthetic intuitive thinker?”
Individuals are like icebergs Ethics and morality Feelings Memories Experiences Tastes Words and Expressions Clothes Personality
Unpeeling the groups layers Group culture Beliefs & Values Rituals Symbols Behaviour
Culture is like an iceberg Communication style Attitudes Perceptions Beliefs Values Language Food Appearance
Personal and cultural factors That make personal and the culture Kaleidoscopes ME Memories Senses Perceptions Philosophy Relationships Preferences Education Contacts Race Geography Religion History Language Laws Food Communication Traditions Climate & weather
What we see, hear and evaluate are filtered by our own perceptions and understanding of the world.
How can we break down the barriers? Work towards common and shared objectives. Build relationships through effective communication.
Build relationships - develop rapport Trust Loyalty Respect Support Talk
Seduction Hot Cosily warm Warm Empathy Understanding Lukewarm Neutral Cool Cold Sufferance What is the level of rapport best for contact? (Professional or social)
Language and communication across borders Speaker Audience Relationship Situation Personality Socio-linguistic Type & style Media Barriers Cultural variations
Many cultural (hidden) influences impact on effective cross-border communication Approaches to completing tasks (task- relationship dimensions) Attitude to time How we see things Communication styles Language and linguistic variations
How we see things Which 6 characteristics would you like to find in an ideal work colleague? Be from the same culture and speak the same language! HumourDiplomacy Willingness to compromise Modesty Sense of fair play Pragmatism
The trouble with the British Humour May be seen as unprofessional in a business context Modesty May be taken at face value, seen as lack of expertise Diplomacy May be seen as being dishonest or too indirect Willingness to compromise May be seen as lack of conviction Pragmatism May be seen as lack of intellect & logic
How we see and interpret things - Perception “Never assume the obvious is true” William Saffire Be open to different interpretations
Ludwig Wittgenstein “The limits of my language, means the limits of my world ” “He gave man speech, and speech created thought. Which is the measure of the universe.” Prometheus Unbound, Shelley Language helps us think, interpret things and decide on meaning
If Shakespeare had been a Frenchman “To be or not to be, that is the question. But the question is badly formulated.” But the question is badly formulated.” “I think, therefore I am.” René Descartes
I know you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realise that what you heard is NOT what I meant Language and communication style WHY?
Words used The way the message is sent & received Understanding cross-cultural processes and procedures
French - English Eventual(possible) Actual(now, at present) Agenda(diary) Sensible(sensitive) Assist(participate) Swedish - English Protocol(minutes - meeting) Personnel(personal) Insulate(isolate) House (building) Japanese - English Maybe(NO) Words used and word choice
The way the message was sent and received Personality of the voice Stomach, heart or brain Music Intonation, stress, rhythm, pacing and pausing Body language Hand and body movement, eye contact
Understanding the process (to reduce misunderstanding & misinterpreting the process) Silence Agreement? Thinking internally? Nothing to say? Listening without interrupting (passive/active) Respectful? Help the communication process?(support, check & clarify) Choice of words - ‘the lagom line’ nice -lovely - great - fantastic - amazing
Limitation of words available ‘paint a a black & white picture’ (mother tongue - translation) OK Also Get (få) Language context (High - Low) Emotional expressiveness (juntelagen) Consensual Hierarchical agreement power Precise, direct, logical, blunt, definitive and transparent Indirect, circuitous, evasive, tactical, ambiguous,opaque, even evasive Contained and Neutral Embarrassment and stress from show of emotions Emotional and Expressive Few inhibitions
Reduce borders and break down barriers Avoid assumptions. Have self-awareness (prejudices and stereotypes) Listen carefully and show empathy. Be patient, be humble and be flexible. Tolerate and accommodate differences (perception, reality and outcome). Relax, be open and honest - build trust and relationships. Do not assume that what you communicate (say, write, etc.) is understood in the way you meant. Do your homework - know the differences that matter (be aware, collect information, analyse) Each situation is separate - interpersonal and intercultural factors affect communication.
To know, yet to think that you do not know is best. Not to know, yet to think that you know will lead to difficulty. It is by being alive to difficulty that you can avoid it. Lao Tzu
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