OBJECTIVES n 1. Discuss critical thinking and problem solving. n 2. Describe importance of critical thinking for nurses.
PRETEST n 1. Define the word critical. n 2. Identify one way in which nurses use critical thinking in their practice. n 3. How many problem-solving methods exist? n 4. What is at least 1 characteristic of critical thinking? n 5. Define decision making.
Con’t n 4. Rational & reflective, involves healthy, constructive skepticism, is autonomous, includes creative thinking, is fair thinking, focuses on what to believe & do. n 5. The process of establishing criteria by which alternative courses of action are developed & selected.
ANSWERS n 1. Requiring careful judgement. n 2. To problem solve & make decisions, to make reliable observations, draw sound conclusions, create new information & ideas, evaluate lines of reasoning & improve their self-knowledge. n 3. Five. n.
WHY IS CRITICAL THINKING IMPORTANT? n 1.Critical thinking is the key to resolving problems. n 2. Nurses must make complex decisions, adapt to new situations & continuously update their knowledge & skills. Critical thinking is integral to all of these n 3. Critical thinking will be essential to pass the NCLEX.
(Con’t) n 4. National League for Nursing (NLN) accredited programs must include content designed to develop critical thinking skills.
WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING? n Critical thinking is the rational examination of ideas, inferences, assumptions, principles, arguments, conclusions, issues, statements, beliefs & actions.
WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING IN NURSING? n Purposeful, goal-directed thinking aiming to make judgments based on evidence rather than conjecture. It is based on principles of science & the scientific method & develops strategies that maximize human potential & compensates for problems caused by human nature
WHAT WOULD BE A SYNONYM FOR CRITICAL THINKING? n Reasoning which is a highly individualized, complex activity that involves distinct ideas, emotions & perceptions.
WHAT ARE THE (2)TYPES OF REASONING? n Inductive reasoning= generalizations are formed from a set of facts or observations. n Deductive reasoning= reasoning from the general to the specific.
WHAT DOES CRITICAL MEAN? n Critical means requiring careful judgment. n Thinking means to have an opinion, to reflect on or ponder, to call to mind or remember to devise a plan, to form a mental picture of (image), to reason
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THINKING & CRITICAL THINKING? n CONTROL n Critical thinking is controlled, purposeful & more likely to lead to obvious beneficial results n Thinking is basically any mental activity;can be aimless & uncontrolled; it may serve a purpose, but we often aren’t aware of its benefits;we might not even remember our thoughts at all
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL THINKING? n 1. It is rational & reflective. n 2. It involves healthy, constructive skepticism. n 3. It is autonomous. n 4. It includes creative thinking. n 5. It is fair thinking. n 6. It focuses on what to believe & do.
WHAT ARE ATTITUDES OF CRITICAL THINKERS? n They are: n 1. Active thinkers. n 2. Knowledgeable of their biases & limitations. n 3. Fair-minded. n 4. Willing to exert a conscious effort to work in a planful manner.
(Con’t) n 5. Good communicators. n 6. Empathetic. n 7. Open-minded. n 8. Independent thinkers. n 9. Curious & insightful. n 10. Humble. n 11. Proactive.
(Con’t) n 12. Honest with themselves & others, admitting when their thinking may be flawed or requires more thought. n 13. Organized & systematic in their approach. n 14. Flexible. n 15. Cognizant of rules of logic n 16. Realistic
(Con’t) n 17. Team players. n 18. Creative & committed to excellence.
DOES CRITICAL THINKING INVOLVE CRITICAL ANALYSIS? n YES! Critical analysis is a set of questions one can apply to a particular situation or idea to determine essential information & ideas & discard superfluous information & ideas. Apply questions only prn.
ARE CRITICAL THINKING & PROBLEM SOLVING THE SAME? n NO! They are sometimes used interchangeably but are separate processes that are related in some situations. Not all decisions we make involve solving a problem; creativity is a form of critical thinking itself.
WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING? n Process used when a gap is perceived between an existing state (what is occurring)& a desired state of what should be occurring. n Nurse obtains info. that clarifies nature of the problem & suggests possible solutions, evaluates the slns. & chooses best,implement;situa tion is carefully monitored
(Con’t) n To ensure initial & continued effectiveness n The nurse does not discard the other slns. But holds them in reserve in the event that the first sln. is not effective.
WHAT ARE THE 5 MOST COMMON APPROACHES TO PROBLEM SOLVING? n 1. Trial and Error n 2. Intuition n 3. Nursing Process n 4. Scientific method/Research process n 5. Modified Scientific Method
WHAT IS INTUITION? n Intuition can be viewed as a form of guessing & therefore inappropriate basis for nursing decisions n In clinical judgment it is acquired through knowledge and experience with similar types of situations n It is not valid for novices or students due to their lack of knowledge & clinical expertise
WHAT IS THE NURSING PROCESS? n It is the systematic method of assessing, diagnosing (nsg), planning, implementing & evaluating nursing care n It is the method used by nurses to solve clients’ problems
WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD? n Formalized, logical, systematic approach to solving problems n Classic scientific method is most useful when the researcher is working in a controlled situation
WHAT ARE THE STEPS (10)of the Scientific Method? n 1. State a research question or problem n 2. Define purpose of or rationale for study n 3. Review the related literature n 4. Formulate hypotheses & define variables n 5. Select plan or method to test hypothesis
(Con’t) n 6. Select population, sample & setting n 7. Conduct a pilot study n 8. Collect the data n 9. Analyze the data n 10.Communicate conclusions & implications
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONTROLLED SETTING vs CLINICAL PROBLEM SETTING?
DIFFERENCES n 1. The nurse’s time frame is often shorter than the researcher’s n 2. The nurse’s environment makes complete scientific control impossible n 3. The nurse deals with multiple, complex problems
WHAT IS THE MODIFIED SCIENTIFIC METHOD? n A scientific method that is changed or adjusted to solve health problems n This method is used in nursing and medicine
WHAT ARE THE STEPS OF THE MODIFIED SCIENTIFIC METHOD? n 1. Define the problem n 2. Gather the information n 3. Analyze the information n 4. Develop solutions n 5. Make a decision n 6. Implement the decision n 7. Evaluate the solution
WHAT IS DECISION MAKING? n It is the process of establishing criteria by which alternative courses of action are developed and selected
WHAT ARE THE 3 CONDITIONS IN DECISION MAKING? n 1. Freedom n 2. Rationality n 3. Voluntarity
WHAT IS CLINICAL DECISION MAKING COMPOSED OF? n 1. Cue n 2. Hypothesis n 3. Knowledge base n 4. Nursing intervention n 5. Search n 6. Assumption
WHAT IS THE 7-STEP DECISION MAKING PROCESS? n 1. Identify the purpose n 2. Set the criteria n 3. Weight the criteria n 4. Seek alternatives n 5. Test alternatives n 6. Troubleshoot n 7. Evaluate the action
WHAT IS CREATIVITY? n It is original thinking n It is a major component of critical thinking n It is thinking that results in the development of new ideas & products n Creativity in decision making is the ability to develop & implement new & better solutions
WHAT ARE THE 4 STAGES OF THE CREATIVE PROCESS? n 1. Preparation n 2. Incubation n 3. Insight n 4. Verification
WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF CREATIVE THINKERS? n 1. Able to generate ideas rapidly n 2. Flexible and spontaneous n 3. Able to provide original solutions to problems n 4. Preferring complex thought processes n 5. Independent & self-confident n 6. Exhibiting distinct individualism
WHAT IS BRAINSTORMING? n It is a creative thinking technique used by groups for eliciting ideas, decisions, or solutions to problems
DOES NURSING NECESSARILY REQUIRE USE OF ALL POSSIBILE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS? NO!
HOW DO NURSING PROCESS & CT INTERFACE? n Nurses use a variety of critical thinking skills to carry out the nursing process