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© 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Menu Options: Focus TV Focus TV Lecture/ Discussion Chapter Exercises Audio Chapter Summary Chapter Summary Other Thinking.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Menu Options: Focus TV Focus TV Lecture/ Discussion Chapter Exercises Audio Chapter Summary Chapter Summary Other Thinking."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Menu Options: Focus TV Focus TV Lecture/ Discussion Chapter Exercises Audio Chapter Summary Chapter Summary Other Thinking Critically and Creatively © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

2 You’re About to Discover… How focused thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking are definedHow focused thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking are defined How a four-part model of critical thinking worksHow a four-part model of critical thinking works How to analyze arguments, assess assumptions, and consider claimsHow to analyze arguments, assess assumptions, and consider claims How to avoid mistakes in reasoningHow to avoid mistakes in reasoning What metacognition is and why it’s importantWhat metacognition is and why it’s important How to become a more creative thinkerHow to become a more creative thinker © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

3 p Desiree Moore

4 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Rethinking Thinking Learn to think, not regurgitate. True thinking is intentional, not just idle daydreaming. We never stop thinking… but what is focused thinking? Focused thinking is thinking critically and creatively. Learn to think, not regurgitate. True thinking is intentional, not just idle daydreaming. We never stop thinking… but what is focused thinking? Focused thinking is thinking critically and creatively. Critical Thinking is evaluating ideas. Creative Thinking is producing new ideas. Critical Thinking is evaluating ideas. Creative Thinking is producing new ideas. “ ” ‘Knowledge is power.’ Rather, knowledge is happiness. To have knowledge, deep broad knowledge, is to know truth from false and lofty things from low. Helen Keller, American author, activist, and lecturer

5 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning What Is Critical Thinking? p. 109 Exercise 5.1: Exercise 5.1: Critical Thinking Critical Thinking

6 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning I. Reasoning: Induction vs. Deduction Inductive arguments go from specific observations to general conclusions Deductive arguments go from broad generalizations to specific conclusions

7 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning I. Reasoning : Relevance and Adequacy Two things are required to judge the soundness of an argument: Relevance Adequacy Look at an example: “I don’t see why all students have to take an introductory writing course. It’s a free country. Students shouldn’t have to take courses they don’t want to take.” Is the statement “It’s a free country relevant? What does living in a free country have to do with courses that community college students are required to take? Nothing. Now look at this example: “Everyone taking Math 100 failed the test last Friday. I took the test last Friday. Therefore, I will probably get an F in the course.” How many tests are left in the course? What other assignments figure into students’ grades? The information present may not be adequate to predict an F in the course.

8 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning I. Reasoning: Analyzing Arguments Sound or Unsound? Is it Relevant? Is it Adequate? Is it Logical? “ ” The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress. Joseph Joubert, French moralist

9 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning I. Reasoning: Assessing Assumptions Assumptions are things you take for granted, and they can limit your thinking. Understand your own assumptions and see an argument in new ways. “One day Kerry celebrated her birthday. Two days later her older twin brother, Harry, celebrated his birthday. How could that be?” Think! What assumptions are you making about this puzzle? Assumptions are things you take for granted, and they can limit your thinking. Understand your own assumptions and see an argument in new ways. “One day Kerry celebrated her birthday. Two days later her older twin brother, Harry, celebrated his birthday. How could that be?” Think! What assumptions are you making about this puzzle? “ ” What we need is not the will to believe, but the will to find out. Bertrand Russell, British philosopher, logician, and mathematician

10 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning I. Reasoning: Considering Claims Generally speaking, be wary of claims that:  are supported by unidentified sources (“Experts claim... ”).  are made by a person or company who stands to gain (“Brought to you by the makers of...”).  come from a a single person claiming his experience as the norm (“I tried it and it worked for me!”).  use a bandwagon appeal (“Everybody’s doing it.”).  mislead with statistics (“over half” when it’s really only 50.5 percent). © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

11 p. 113 Focus TV: Focus TV: Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Simple vs. Complex Reasoning

12 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Help Stamp Out Faulty Reasoning 1. False Cause and Effect 2. Personal Attack 3. Unwarranted Assumption 4. Emotional Appeal 5. False Authority 6. Hasty Conclusion 7. Straw Man 8. Shifting the Burdon of Proof 9. Oversimplification/Overgeneralization 10. Either/Or Thinking 1. False Cause and Effect 2. Personal Attack 3. Unwarranted Assumption 4. Emotional Appeal 5. False Authority 6. Hasty Conclusion 7. Straw Man 8. Shifting the Burdon of Proof 9. Oversimplification/Overgeneralization 10. Either/Or Thinking Exercise 5.2: Exercise 5.2: Case Study Case Study

13 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning II. Problem Solving: How-To’s STEP 1: Define the problem. STEP 2: Brainstorm possible options. STEP 3: Devise criteria to evaluate each option. STEP 4: Evaluate each option you’ve proposed. STEP 5: Choose the best solution. STEP 6: Plan how to achieve the best solution. STEP 7: Implement the solution and evaluate results.

14 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning III. Decision Making: What’s Your Style? Directive Behavioral Analytical Conceptual

15 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Thinking about Your Thinking: Metacognition In short, Metacognition is thinking about your thinking. Improve your metacognitive skills: Develop a plan of action Monitor your plan Evaluate your plan

16 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Becoming a Better Critical Thinker 1.Admit when you don’t know. 2.Realize you have buttons that can be pushed. 3.Learn more about the opposition. 4.Trust and verify. 5. Remember that critical thinking is the foundation of all academic achievement. © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

17 Thinking Creatively: What’s Your Style? IntuitiveInnovativeImaginativeInspirational

18 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 1. Find new eyes. 2. Accept your creativity. 3. Make your thoughts visible. 4. Generate lots of ideas. 5. Don’t overcomplexify. 6. Capitalize on your mistakes. 7. Let it flow. 8. Bounce ideas off others. 9. Stop searching for the “right” answer. 10. Detach your self-concept. Ten Ways to Become a More Creative Thinker

19 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning VARK Activity p. 116

20 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Chapter 5: Exercises and Activities And Just Why Is Critical Thinking Important? Aspen Commons Apartment Complex Case Study Audio Summary of Chapter 5 Focus TV: Critical Thinking Chapter Exercise Chapter Exercise p. 115 p. 115 Chapter Exercise Chapter Exercise p. 108 p. 108 Focus TV: Focus TV: Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Audio Chapter Summary Chapter Summary Back to Menu Back to Menu

21 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning And Just Why Is Critical Thinking Important? Exercise 5.1, p. 108

22 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Aspen Commons Apartment Complex Case Study Exercise 5.2, p. 115

23 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Chapter 5 Audio Summary

24 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning FOCUS TV Critical Thinking Focus TV Focus TV Discussion ?s Back to Menu Back to Menu Back to Activities Back to Activities

25 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning FOCUS TV Presentation To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Content will load automatically Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

26 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning 1.FOCUS correspondent Anna Carolina says that “Ghandi once said: Those who know how to think need no teachers.” What does she mean? 2.Anna seems to misunderstand the term “critical thinking” at the beginning of this episode. What does she think critical thinking is? 3.Can you remember the levels of thinking depicted while Professor Nicholson describes what critical thinking is to Anna? See if you can list the questions for each of the pyramid’s three levels. 4.“Complex reasoning isn’t that complex, after all” says our FOCUS correspondent. “We just have to ask ourselves tougher questions.” Do you agree? Why or why not? 5. By the end of the episode, Professor Nicholson understands the joke being played on him. What does he mean by asking, “This isn’t one of those Borat things, is it?”? Focus TV Discussion Questions

27 © 2012 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning FOCUS Points F CUSPoints An Interactive Teaching Tool FOCUS on COMMUNITY COLLEGE SUCCESS Second Edition Chapter 5 Constance Staley and Aren Moore


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