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Chapter 2: The Enlightenment & the American Revolution

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1 Chapter 2: The Enlightenment & the American Revolution
Section 1: Philosophy in the Age of Reason Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world Natural law—rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism Enlightenment—revolution in thinking; 1st described in The Critique of Pure Reason by Emmanuel Kant (German)

2 Hobbes & Locke Have Conflicting Views
A. Thomas Hobbes—17th century English thinker, wrote Leviathan, which says: people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish if not controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress one another life in “state of nature” (w/o laws or control) would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” to escape “brutish” life, people entered into social contract (an agreement where you give up your freedom for an organized society) believed in absolute monarchy as solution

3 B. John Locke—17th century English thinker, wrote Two Treatise of Government which says:
people are basically reasonable and moral had rights that belonged to all humans from birth (life, liberty, property) people formed gov’ts to protect natural rights against absolute monarchy; believed in gov’t w/ limited power & citizens must accept people have right to overthrow gov’t if they violate people’s natural rights (radical idea)

4 The Philosophes in the 1700s, thinkers from France applied methods of science to understand and improve society these philosophers were called philosophes meaning philosophers Baron de Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Laws, which states: the best way to protect liberty was to divide powers of gov’t to 3 branches: legislative executive Judicial led to the idea of checks and balances

5 Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)—defended the principle of freedom of speech
exposed the wrongs of his time targeted corrupt officials and aristocrats wrote about inequality, injustice, and superstition hated the slave trade and religious prejudice offended French gov’t and Catholic Church was imprisoned and forced into exiled

6 Denis Diderot—created a 28-volume set of books called the Encyclopedia
explained ideas on gov’t, philosophy, and religion included articles from leading thinkers including Montesquieu and Voltaire denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and urged education for all attacked divine-right theory and traditional religions sold 4,000 copies from despite threats from French gov’t and Roman Catholic Church and Pope

7 Jean-Jacques Rousseau—wrote The Social Contract, 1762
believed people were basically good, but corrupted by evils in society, especially unequal distribution of land felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior believed some controls were necessary, but only by elected gov’ts hated all forms of economic and political oppression

8 Enlightenment slogan “free and equal” did not apply to women
Mary Wollstonecraft—wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792 called for equal education for girls and boys only education could give women tools to participate equally physiocrats focused on economic reforms based on natural laws of economic

9 physiocrats rejected mercantilism, which required gov’t regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade they favored laissez faire—allowed business to operate w/ little or no gov’t interference Adam Smith—wrote The Wealth of Nations argued that free market should be allowed to regulate business activity tried to show how manufacturing, trade, wages, profit, and economic growth were all linked to supply and demand (market forces) felt that gov’t had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works

10 Section 2: Enlightenment Ideas Spread
New Ideas Challenge Society as more ideas spread, people saw that change was needed for a just society a just society should guarantee social justice and happiness war of censorship—gov’t and church authorities restricted access of ideas and info. (banned and burned books and imprisoned writers) as a response, philosophes and writers disguised their ideas in works of fiction: Montesquieu wrote Persian Letters Voltaire wrote Candide

11 discussion in salons—informal social gatherings where people exchanged ideas
Arts & Literature Reflect New Ideas baroque—grand or detailed style of art and architecture rococo—lighter, elegant, & charming new Enlightenment led to new forms of music (Bach, Handel, Mozart) Literature developed new forms (prose fiction—Robinson Crusoe)

12 Enlightened Despots Embrace New Ideas
enlightened despots—absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change Frederick the Great (Frederick II)—king of Prussia from wanted to make Prussian gov’t more efficient invited French thinkers and had religious freedom desired stronger monarchy and more power for himself

13 Catherine the Great (Catherine II)—empress of Russia
believed in Enlightenment ideas of equality and liberty abolished torture and est. religious freedom expanded Russian empire w/o giving up power Joseph II—Austrian king; the most radical of enlightened despots supported religious equality allowed free press tried to bring Catholic Church under royal control

14 Lives of the Majority Change Slowly
change for peasants and small rural villages were very slow in Europe by the 1700s, radical ideas enter peasant villages in the 1800s, war, political confusion, and economic conditions change peasant life in Europe

15 Section 3: Birth of the American Republic
Britain Becomes a Global Power 4 reasons Britain was the most powerful empire: location helped control trade w/ outposts England ready for commerce and business and placed fewer restrictions Britain won most of the wars in the 1700s and gain lots of territory from other European countries and became very rich

16 England became bigger to form United Kingdom of Great Britain, 1707—created larger markets for trade
George III ruled for 60 years, but many of his policies were bad The 13 Colonies in the Mid-1700s in 1750s, Britain controlled 13 prosperous colonies which were centers of trade in the 1600s, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to regulate trade, because the colonies were trading (exporting) more than they were buying (importing) by the mid-1700s, the colonies were religiously and ethnically diverse Wealthy merchants and landowners controlled gov’t and society, but colonists wanted rights like English citizens

17 Colonists Expressed Discontent
British Parliament passed Sugar Act (1764) & Stamp Act (1765) to help repay war debts American colonists protested saying “no taxation without representation” colonists rebel against Britain Boston Massacre (1770) Boston Tea Party (1773) representatives from each colony met in Philadelphia—Continental Congress—to decide how to respond (Adams, Washington)

18 in April 1775, Revolutionary War (American Revolution) began
George Washington led the Continental Army in 1776, the Second Continental Congress met & voted for independence from Britain Thomas Jefferson wrote Declaration of Independence (1776), which included: Locke’s idea of ”life, liberty, and property” Locke’s idea of “to alter or abolish” unjust gov’ts

19 popular sovereignty--all gov’t power comes from the people
The American Revolution Continues Battle of Saratoga (1777)—1st American victory (France, Netherlands, and Spain support) British Army surrenders at Yorktown, Virginia ending the war Treaty of Paris (1783) officially ends the war and declares USA independent

20 A New Constitution Articles of Confederation—nation’s 1st constitution Second Continental Congress met in 1787 with 50 reps. (Framers) to write the new constitution The constitution created a federal republic—power divided between federal (nat’l) gov’t and states (also created 3 branches--Montesquieu) Bill of Rights—1st ten amendments Enlightenment ideas brought about U.S. constitution, which inspired many countries in Europe and Latin America

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