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Chapter 2: The Enlightenment & the American Revolution  Section 1: Philosophy in the Age of Reason I. Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment A.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: The Enlightenment & the American Revolution  Section 1: Philosophy in the Age of Reason I. Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: The Enlightenment & the American Revolution  Section 1: Philosophy in the Age of Reason I. Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment A. Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world B. Natural law—rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism C. Enlightenment—revolution in thinking; 1 st described in The Critique of Pure Reason by Emmanuel Kant (German)

2 II. Hobbes & Locke Have Conflicting Views A. Thomas Hobbes—17 th century English thinker, wrote Leviathan, which says: 1. people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish 2. if not controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress one another 3. life in “state of nature” (w/o laws or control) would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” 4. to escape “brutish” life, people entered into social contract (an agreement where you give up your freedom for an organized society) 5. believed in absolute monarchy as solution

3 B. John Locke—17 th century English thinker, wrote Two Treatise of Government which says: 1. people are basically reasonable and moral 2. had rights that belonged to all humans from birth (life, liberty, property) 3. people formed gov’ts to protect natural rights 4. against absolute monarchy; believed in gov’t w/ limited power & citizens must accept 5. people have right to overthrow gov’t if they violate people’s natural rights (radical idea)

4 III. The Philosophes A. in the 1700s, thinkers from France applied methods of science to understand and improve society B. these philosophers were called philosophes meaning philosophers C. Baron de Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Laws, which states: 1. the best way to protect liberty was to divide powers of gov’t to 3 branches: a. legislative b. executive c. Judicial  led to the idea of checks and balances

5 D. Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)— defended the principle of freedom of speech 1. exposed the wrongs of his time 2. targeted corrupt officials and aristocrats 3. wrote about inequality, injustice, and superstition 4. hated the slave trade and religious prejudice 5. offended French gov’t and Catholic Church 6. was imprisoned and forced into exiled

6 E. Denis Diderot—created a 28-volume set of books called the Encyclopedia 1. explained ideas on gov’t, philosophy, and religion 2. included articles from leading thinkers including Montesquieu and Voltaire 3. denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and urged education for all 4. attacked divine-right theory and traditional religions  sold 4,000 copies from despite threats from French gov’t and Roman Catholic Church and Pope

7 F. Jean-Jacques Rousseau—wrote The Social Contract, believed people were basically good, but corrupted by evils in society, especially unequal distribution of land 2. felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior 3. believed some controls were necessary, but only by elected gov’ts 4. hated all forms of economic and political oppression

8 G. Enlightenment slogan “free and equal” did not apply to women H. Mary Wollstonecraft—wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women, called for equal education for girls and boys 2. only education could give women tools to participate equally I. physiocrats focused on economic reforms based on natural laws of economic

9 J. physiocrats rejected mercantilism, which required gov’t regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade K. they favored laissez faire—allowed business to operate w/ little or no gov’t interference L. Adam Smith—wrote The Wealth of Nations 1. argued that free market should be allowed to regulate business activity 2. tried to show how manufacturing, trade, wages, profit, and economic growth were all linked to supply and demand (market forces) 3. felt that gov’t had a duty to protect society, administer justice, and provide public works

10 Section 2: Enlightenment Ideas Spread I. New Ideas Challenge Society A. as more ideas spread, people saw that change was needed for a just society B. a just society should guarantee social justice and happiness C. war of censorship—gov’t and church authorities restricted access of ideas and info. (banned and burned books and imprisoned writers) D. as a response, philosophes and writers disguised their ideas in works of fiction: 1. Montesquieu wrote Persian Letters 2. Voltaire wrote Candide

11 E. discussion in salons—informal social gatherings where people exchanged ideas II. Arts & Literature Reflect New Ideas A. baroque—grand or detailed style of art and architecture B. rococo—lighter, elegant, & charming C. new Enlightenment led to new forms of music (Bach, Handel, Mozart) D. Literature developed new forms (prose fiction—Robinson Crusoe)

12 III. Enlightened Despots Embrace New Ideas A. enlightened despots—absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change B. Frederick the Great (Frederick II)— king of Prussia from wanted to make Prussian gov’t more efficient wanted to make Prussian gov’t more efficient invited French thinkers and had religious freedom invited French thinkers and had religious freedom desired stronger monarchy and more power for himself desired stronger monarchy and more power for himself

13 C. Catherine the Great (Catherine II)— empress of Russia believed in Enlightenment ideas of equality and liberty believed in Enlightenment ideas of equality and liberty abolished torture and est. religious freedom abolished torture and est. religious freedom expanded Russian empire w/o giving up power expanded Russian empire w/o giving up power D. Joseph II—Austrian king; the most radical of enlightened despots supported religious equality supported religious equality allowed free press allowed free press tried to bring Catholic Church under royal control tried to bring Catholic Church under royal control

14 IV. Lives of the Majority Change Slowly A. change for peasants and small rural villages were very slow in Europe B. by the 1700s, radical ideas enter peasant villages C. in the 1800s, war, political confusion, and economic conditions change peasant life in Europe

15 Section 3: Birth of the American Republic I. Britain Becomes a Global Power A. 4 reasons Britain was the most powerful empire: 1. location helped control trade w/ outposts 2. England ready for commerce and business and placed fewer restrictions 3. Britain won most of the wars in the 1700s and gain lots of territory from other European countries and became very rich

16 4. England became bigger to form United Kingdom of Great Britain, 1707—created larger markets for trade B. George III ruled for 60 years, but many of his policies were bad II. The 13 Colonies in the Mid-1700s A. in 1750s, Britain controlled 13 prosperous colonies which were centers of trade B. in the 1600s, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to regulate trade, because the colonies were trading (exporting) more than they were buying (importing) C. by the mid-1700s, the colonies were religiously and ethnically diverse D. Wealthy merchants and landowners controlled gov’t and society, but colonists wanted rights like English citizens

17 III. Colonists Expressed Discontent A. British Parliament passed Sugar Act (1764) & Stamp Act (1765) to help repay war debts B. American colonists protested saying “no taxation without representation” C. colonists rebel against Britain 1. Boston Massacre (1770) 2. Boston Tea Party (1773) D. representatives from each colony met in Philadelphia—Continental Congress—to decide how to respond (Adams, Washington)

18 E. in April 1775, Revolutionary War (American Revolution) began F. George Washington led the Continental Army G. in 1776, the Second Continental Congress met & voted for independence from Britain H. Thomas Jefferson wrote Declaration of Independence (1776), which included: 1. Locke’s idea of ”life, liberty, and property” 2. Locke’s idea of “to alter or abolish” unjust gov’ts

19 3. popular sovereignty--all gov’t power comes from the people IV. The American Revolution Continues A. Battle of Saratoga (1777)—1 st American victory (France, Netherlands, and Spain support) B. British Army surrenders at Yorktown, Virginia ending the war C. Treaty of Paris (1783) officially ends the war and declares USA independent

20 V. A New Constitution A. Articles of Confederation—nation’s 1 st constitution B. Second Continental Congress met in 1787 with 50 reps. (Framers) to write the new constitution C. The constitution created a federal republic—power divided between federal (nat’l) gov’t and states (also created 3 branches--Montesquieu) D. Bill of Rights—1 st ten amendments E. Enlightenment ideas brought about U.S. constitution, which inspired many countries in Europe and Latin America


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