~Chapter 18~ The Enlightenment & American Revolution 1707-1800 By: Katya Joseph
Philosophy in the Age of Reason The Scientific Revolution of the 15 and 1600’s had transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. It led to another revolution in thinking: the Enlightenment. Through the use of reason, Enlightenment thinkers, people and governments could solve every social, political, and economic problem. Natural Law- rule or law that governs human nature In the 1600’s, two men set forth ideas that would become key to the enlightenment: Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. Thomas Hobbes wrote “Leviathan”. He believed that all people are naturally selfish, greedy, and immoral. If not strictly controlled, they would do anything to satisfy their desires. To escape that barbaric lifestyle, he said people entered a: Social Contract- an agreement by which they gave up the state of the nature for an organized society. Hobbes supported the absolute monarchy. John Locke wrote “Two Treaties of Government”. He felt that people are naturally good inside. He felt that humans also had: Natural Rights- rights that belonged to all humans from birth. (The right to life, liberty and property). He felt that the government has an obligation to the people it governs. He supported parliament.
In France, an influential thinker, Baron Montesquieu wrote “The Spirit of the Law”. He believed that there should be three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. He thinks of checks and balances, and wanted to build a world where no one man had all the power. Philosophes- lovers of wisdom- group of Enlightenment thinkers (in France) who applied to the methods of science to better understand and improve society. Francois-Marie Arouet, a.k.a Voltaire, targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats. He wrote about inequality, injustice and superstition. Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote “The Social Contract”. He felt that in order for a society to function, individuals had to give up certain rights. He also believed that people are naturally good but society corrupts them. He supported a limited government/ democracy. Denis Diderot produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia. The Enlightenment slogan, “free and equal” did not apply to women. Mid 1700’s, a small but growing number of women protested this view. Their arguments, however, were ridiculed and sharply condemned. Mary Wollonscraft agreed that women had a first duty, but also felt that women should decide what is in her own interests. Physiocrats- thinkers who searched for natural rights to explain economics. This group of people urged the policy of: Laissez Faire- allowing businesses to run with little or no government interference. Adam Smith wrote “The Wealth of Nations”. He believed that the government should not get involved in personal business. He also believed that that prices should be regulated by free market
Enlightenment Ideas Spread Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe and prompted some rulers to make reforms. The Church felt they had a duty to defend the old order set up by God. They waged a war of: Censorship- restricting ideas and information. They banned and burned books, and imprisoned writers. Philosophes sometimes disguised their ideas in works of fiction. New literature, the arts, science, and philosophy were regular topics of discussion at: Salons- informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and other exchanged ideas. As ideas spread, some monarchs did accept Enlightenment teachings. They became: Enlightened Despots- absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. Frederick II, Catherine II, and Joseph II admired Enlightenment thinkers and directed many reforms over their empires. But unlike the two other despots, Joseph II didn’t rationalize or contribute in order for personal gain. He went great lengths to improve the lives of his people.
New styles or art also came out during the Enlightenment: Baroque- ornate style of art and architecture Rococo- personal elegant style of art. Featured fancy designs in shapes of leaves, shells, and scrolls. New kinds of musical entertainment evolved: ballets and operas; plays to music Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel became towering musical figures. In 1762. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart burst onto the European scene.
Britain at Mid-Century Britain’s island location, colonial possessions, and powerful navy contributed to its rise to world power. In the century following the Glorious Revolution, there were three new political parties, the cabinet, and the office prime minister. The appearance of these institutions was part of the evolution of Britain’s new: Constitutional Government- a government whose power is defined and limited by law. Two political parties emerged during the 1600’s; the Whigs and the Tories. The Tories were generally landed aristocrats who sought to preserve all traditions. The Whigs backed of the Glorious Revolution. They reflected urban business interests, supported religious toleration, and favored Parliament over the crown. When George I, German Protestant prince, inherited the thrown, he didn’t speak any English. He expected the Parliament to help rule. George I and George II had a handful of help who set up policies. They were called: Cabinet- parliamentary advisors to the king who originally met in a small room or ‘cabinet’. Head of the cabinet was the prime minister.
Whig leader, Robert Warpole molded the cabinet into a unified body, requiring all members to agree on major issues. British government was a: Oligarchy- a government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people. Landowning aristocrats were seen as the natural ruling class. The highest nobles held seats in the House of Lords. Other wealthy landowners and rich business leaders in the cities controlled elections in the House of Commons. The right to vote was limited to a relatively few male property owners. In 1760, George III began a 60-year reign. He felt the need reassert royal power.After the Seven Years’ War, George decided that English colonists in North America must pay the costs of their own defense. In 1775, these and other conflicts started the American Revolution which ended in a loss for Britain. Cabinet ruled was restored in 1788
Birth of the American Republic Colonial opposition to British trade and tax policies led to independence and the founding of the United States of America. By 1750, Britain owned a string of 13 colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America. In 1763, relations between Britain and the 13 colonies grew strained. Past wars had drained the British treasury. Parliament began to enforce long neglected laws, and raised taxes paid by colonists. “No taxation without Representation!” Colonists felt that this was unfair because they felt they had no one representing them in Parliament. In 1770, British soldiers in Boston opened fire on a crowd that was pelting them with stones. Colonists called the death of 5 citizens the “Boston Massacre”. December 1773, a handful of colonists hurled a cargo of recently arrived British tea into the harbor. It became known as the “Boston Tea Party”. As tensions increased, fighting spread, representatives from each colony gathered in Philadelphia. George Washington was among the members of the gatherings.
The Congress set up a Continental Army. April 1775, the crises exploded into war. In 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted to declare independence from Britain. Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration emphasized the principle of: Popular Sovereignty- states that all government power comes from the people. July 4 th, 1776, American leaders adopted the Declaration. At first, the American cause looked bleak. The British has professional soldiers, a huge fleet, and plentiful money. Also one-third of the colonists were: Loyalists- supporters of the Britain Government. Colonists did have some advantages; they were fighting on their own soil, for their farms and towns.
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument. Here, in exalted and unforgettable phrases, Jefferson expressed the convictions in the minds and hearts of the American people. The political philosophy of the Declaration was not new; its ideals of individual liberty had already been expressed by John Locke and the Continental philosophers. What Jefferson did was to summarize this philosophy in "self-evident truths" and set forth a list of grievances against the King in order to justify before the world the breaking of ties between the colonies and the mother country. (http://www.archives.gov/national- archives- experience/charters/declaration_zoom_2.html)
1777, Americans triumphed over the British at the Battle of Saratoga. This victory persuaded France to join Americans against its old rival. In 1781, with the help of France, the British army surrendered in Virginia. Diplomats of France, America, and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris. At the meetings in Philadelphia, the Constitution of the U.S was hammered out. It created a: Federal republic-government in which power divided between the national, or federal, government and the states. A central feature of the federal government was the separation of powers; legislative, executive, and judicial government borrowed directly from Montesquieu. The first ten amendments of the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, recognized the idea that people had basic rights. Though the Constitution had many limitations, it created the most progressive government of its day.
Game Time Take out a pen and paper. Lets put what you’ve learned to test!
Question 1 Which speaker’s statement best reflects the ideas of the Enlightenment? 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D Speaker A: Good government stresses the importance of the nation and accepts the rights of the individual only if the interests of the individual are the same as those of the nation. Speaker B: The person of the king is sacred and to attack him in any way is to attack religion itself. The respect given to a king is religious in nature. Speaker C: All human beings are born free and equal with a right to life and liberty. It is the duty of government to protect these natural rights of its citizens. Speaker D: Our goal will not be achieved by democracy or liberal reforms, but by blood and iron. Only then will we be successful. No nation achieves greatness or unity without the traumatic experiences of war.
Question1 The correct answer is C. The natural rights retained by citizens was a major theme of the Enlightenment and was endorsed by Thomas Locke in his Two Treatises of Government (1690), and Jean-Jaques Rousseau in his Social Contract.
Question 2 1. changing the relationship between people and their government 2. supporting the divine right theory 3. debating the role of the church in society 4. promoting increased power for European monarchs Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily interested in
Question 2 The correct answer is 1. In direct opposition to the theory of divine right, Enlightenment philosophers often wrote of the social contract, in which rulers must protect the rights of their citizens, and citizens have the right to replace rulers who do not protect their rights.
Question 3 A major concept promoted by philosophers of the Enlightenment was the need for 1. a return to traditional medieval ideas 2. the use of reason for rational and logical thinking 3. overseas expansion by western European nations 4. strengthening the power of the organized religions
Question 3 The correct answer is 2. Enlightenment philosophers rejected traditional church teachings and promoted the idea that man should use logic and reason to define the world around him. This led to changes in government and society.
Question 4 John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau would be most likely to support: 1.a return to feudalism in Europe 2.a government ruled by a divine right monarchy 3.a society ruled by the Catholic Church 4.a society in which the people chose the ruler
Question 4 The Correct Answer is 4. Locke and Rousseau’s ideas from the Enlightenment formed the basis of modern democracy.
Question 5 According to the Declaration of Independence, the people have the right to alter or abolish a government if that government 1.is a limited monarchy 2.violates natural rights 3.becomes involved in entangling alliances 4.favors one religion over another
Question 5 The Correct Answer is 2.The writings of John Locke and other authors of the Enlightenment expressed the idea of “The Consent of the Governed”. Rousseau also maintained that a “Social Contract” existed between government and the governed and when government failed to protect rights, a revolution was in order.
So Lets See How You Did! 5/5~ Seems like you know your History! 4/5~ Not bad at all, Nice job! 3/4~ Well, not horrible but looking over a few things wouldn’t be so bad 2/5~ Did you really even read the presentation? 1/5~ NEXT TIME START AT PAGE 1!
Chapter 18 Mr. Hernandez Period: A/1 Katya Joseph Ch. 18 4 th Quarter Project Due May 7 th