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THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Essential Question: What were the major causes and effects of the American Revolution?

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Presentation on theme: "THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Essential Question: What were the major causes and effects of the American Revolution?"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

3 Essential Question: What were the major causes and effects of the American Revolution?

4 Which of the following major movements helped lead to the Enlightenment because it encouraged the use of logic and reason to solve problems? A.The Renaissance B.The Protestant Reformation C.The Age of Exploration D.The Scientific Revolution #1

5 Kings who listened to the ideas of the Enlightenment and made reforms to protect citizens in their nations were called A.Philosophes B.Enlightened despots C.Absolute monarchs D.Constitutional monarchs #2

6 What made Denis Diderot famous during the Enlightenment? A.He argued for women’s rights B.He created Classical music C.He created the Encyclopedia D.He was a Neo-Classical artist #3

7 Which Enlightened thinker would have most convinced Americans to declare independence from England in order to protect their rights of life, liberty, property? A.Baron de Montesquieu B.Jean-Jacques Rousseau C.Voltaire D.John Locke #4

8 Which Enlightenment thinker inspired Americans to create a new government with legislative, executive, and judicial branches? A.Thomas Hobbes B.Baron de Montesquieu C.Jean-Jacques Rousseau D.Cesare Beccaria #5

9 Which of the following major movements helped lead to the Enlightenment because it encouraged the use of logic and reason to solve problems? A.The Renaissance B.The Protestant Reformation C.The Age of Exploration D.The Scientific Revolution ANSWER: D #1

10 Kings who listened to the ideas of the Enlightenment and made reforms to protect citizens in their nations were called A.Philosophes B.Enlightened despots C.Absolute monarchs D.Constitutional monarchs ANSWER: B #2

11 What made Denis Diderot famous during the Enlightenment? A.He argued for women’s rights B.He created Classical music C.He created the Encyclopedia D.He was a Neo-Classical artist ANSWER: C#3

12 Which Enlightened thinker would have most convinced Americans to declare independence from England in order to protect their rights of life, liberty, property? A.Baron de Montesquieu B.Jean-Jacques Rousseau C.Voltaire D.John Locke ANSWER: D #4

13 Which Enlightenment thinker inspired Americans to create a new government with legislative, executive, and judicial branches? A.Thomas Hobbes B.Baron de Montesquieu C.Jean-Jacques Rousseau D.Cesare Beccaria ANSWER: B#5

14 During the Age of Exploration, Europeans began colonizing in North America

15 England granted joint-stock charters to colonists who were searching for wealth or religious freedom

16 The Settlement of America From 1607 to 1733, England established 13 colonies in America; the colonies were very different and lacked unity

17 Economics and Government in Colonial America England used mercantilism to control colonial trade and increase their profits Despite some trade restrictions imposed by England, the colonists also made money in the mercantile system with England

18 Americans created their own colonial assemblies and enjoyed self-government England used a policy called salutary neglect which allowed colonists freedom to make their own laws and mostly conduct business and trade the way they wanted (as long as England made money) Economics and Government in Colonial America

19 The French and Indian War ( ) For about 150 years, the American colonists were happy with the relationship they had with England This would change after the French and Indian War (a war with French and Indians on one side, English troops and American colonists on the other side)

20 The French and Indian War ( ) Starting in 1754, England and France went to war over territory in America

21 The French and Indian War ( ) England won the war

22 The French and Indian War ( ) In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War; the Treaty gave England all French lands east of the Mississippi River... …but the war left England with massive debts

23 To pay off war debts, Britain created a series of new taxes on the American colonists The colonists were upset that the Parliament in England would pass laws without the colonists’ approval

24 Their slogan became: “No taxation without representation”

25 Colonists responded to new taxes with boycotts (refusing to buy British goods that were taxed)

26 Boycotts were effective, but the English king (King George III) and Parliament believed the Americans should obey British laws and took power away from the colonial assemblies

27 From 1763 to 1776, tensions between the English government and the American colonists increased

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29 Americans were literate and read books by leading Enlightenment thinkers, especially John Locke, and used these ideas to justify their protest “People are born with natural rights, including life, liberty, property” “Government power comes from the consent of the governed” “Kings can be overthrown if they violate peoples’ natural rights”

30 British abuses and Enlightenment ideas inspired Americans to declare independence Ben Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson served on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence

31 Title

32 On July 4, 1776 Americans sent King George III the Declaration of Independence

33 The Declaration of Independence What did the Declaration of Independence say and why was it such a revolutionary document? Examine the excerpts of the Declaration of Independence and match the quotes with the appropriate summary sentence. ANSWERS: 1. E2. B3. H4. F 5. A6. D7. G8. C

34 The Declaration of Independence and Influences from the Enlightenment The Declaration of Independence used ideas from the Enlightenment (especially John Locke) to explain why Americans were declaring independence

35 Brief summary of American Revolution Treaty of Paris, 1783 The American Revolution lasted from 1775 to 1783 After years of fighting, the Americans defeated the British at the Battle of Yorktown

36 The Treaty of Paris in 1783 granted the United States independence from Britain and all lands east of the Mississippi River With independence, the United States needed a national government to unite the new nation

37 Government Structure Many of the ideas of the Enlightenment served as inspiration for the new national government of the United States The founding fathers created a “federal” system that created a national government but allowed the 13 states to keep power and make their own laws

38 Analyzing the Constitution ■ How did the Enlightenment influence the structure and power of the national government under the U.S. Constitution? – Examine each of the following images and guess what it reveals about the structure or power of the U.S. government – Match each idea to the Enlightenment philosophe who supported it John Locke Voltaire Montesqueiu Jean-Jacques Rousseau Cesare Beccaria Jean-Jacques Rousseau Cesare Beccaria

39 Constitution Concept #1

40 IDEA: Popular Sovereignty ■ The framers of the Constitution created a democratic republic, a form of government where the people elect their leaders ■ The U.S. Constitution was inspired by John Locke’s idea that government power comes from the “consent of the governed” ■ The Constitution also used Rousseau’s idea of a direct democracy because Congressmen and the President are elected directly by the people (majority rule)

41 Constitution Concept #2

42 IDEA: Limited Government ■ The founding fathers were afraid of giving the national government too much power so they stated exactly which powers the government had and all other powers were left to the state governments or to the people ■ Both Locke and Montesquieu shared the idea of limiting government power ■ Locke believed that a limited government was the only way to protect individual liberty

43 Constitution Concept #3

44 IDEA: Separation of Powers ■ The Constitution uses separation of powers to divide the powers among three branches ■ The legislative branch consists of a Congress that makes laws and taxes ■ The executive branch consists of the president, vice president, and bureaucracy that enforces laws passed by Congress ■ The judicial branch is the Supreme Court and other federal courts that interpret laws, settle disputes, and decide guilt ■ This idea was inspired by Montesquieu

45 Constitution Concept #4

46 IDEA: Checks and Balances ■ To keep one branch from seizing all power, the framers of the Constitution used a system of checks and balances ■ Each branch of government holds powers over the other two branches as a way to limit their power ■ This idea was inspired by Montesquieu

47 Constitution Concept #5

48 IDEA: Individual Liberty ■ The founding fathers added a Bill of Rights to the Constitution in order to guarantee that the government could not violate personal liberty ■ Among these liberties are the freedoms of speech, press, and religion ■ The framers of the Constitution were inspired by the ideas of Voltaire

49 Constitution Concept #6

50 IDEA: Individual Liberty ■ The Bill of Rights includes a number of protections of the rights of accused people ■ The Bill of Rights guarantees Americans freedom from self-incrimination, right to a speedy trial, and protection from cruel and unusual punishment ■ These protections of accused people were supported by Cesare Beccaria

51 The American Revolution was an important event in world history It was the first time a colony overthrew its mother country It was the first time a government was created using Enlightenment ideas of limited government and individual liberty The success in America inspired revolutions in Europe and Latin America


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