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Chapter Four Quotations, Offers and Counter-offers (发盘与还盘)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Four Quotations, Offers and Counter-offers (发盘与还盘)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Four Quotations, Offers and Counter-offers (发盘与还盘)

2 Review Let’s review what we learnt last time together!

3 Learning Objectives 学习目标 By learning this chapter you will be able to: Acquire appropriate knowledge of offer and counter-offer Have the ability to write letters on offers, counter-offers Learning Objectives 学习目标

4 Warming-up Questions Q1: In response to an enquiry what may be sent? Q2: What is to be included in a satisfactory quotation?

5 Answers to Questions 1.In response to an enquiry, quotations may be sent. 2.A satisfactory quotation should included the following: An expression of thanks for the enquiry; Details of prices, discount and terms of payment; A statement of clear indication of what the price cover; An undertaking as to date of delivery.

6 New Words and Expressions grasp v. 掌握 independently adv. 独立地;无关地 concession n. 让步 offeror n. 报盘人 offeree n. 受盘人 firm offer n. 实盘 non-firm offer n. 非实盘 withdraw v. 撤销 inducement n. 引诱;诱因;动机 counter-offer n. 还盘 virtually adv. 实际 / 质上地 New Words and Expressions grasp v. 掌握 independently adv. 独立地;无关地 concession n. 让步 offeror n. 报盘人 offeree n. 受盘人 firm offer n. 实盘 non-firm offer n. 非实盘 withdraw v. 撤销 inducement n. 引诱;诱因;动机 counter-offer n. 还盘 virtually adv. 实际 / 质上地

7 New Words and Expressions rejection n. 拒绝 initiate v. 开始 valid adj. 有效的 call off 取消 commission n. 佣金 assortment n. 分类;花色品种 polybag n. 塑料袋 irrevocable adj. 不可撤销的;不可改变 的 documentary adj. 单据的;跟单的;单证的 prevailing adj. 现行的 let alone 更不用说 rejection n. 拒绝 initiate v. 开始 valid adj. 有效的 call off 取消 commission n. 佣金 assortment n. 分类;花色品种 polybag n. 塑料袋 irrevocable adj. 不可撤销的;不可改变 的 documentary adj. 单据的;跟单的;单证的 prevailing adj. 现行的 let alone 更不用说

8 Many export transactions, particularly initial export transactions, begin with he receipt of an inquiry from abroad that is followed by a request for a quotation. A quotation describes the product, states a price for it, sets the time of shipment, and specifies the terms of sale and terms of the pay- ment. Since the foreign buyer may not be familiar with the product, the General Introduction

9 description of it in an overseas quotation must be more detailed than in a domestic quotation. The description should include the following 15 points: 1.Seller’s and buyer’s names and addresses 2. buyer’s reference number and date of inquiry continued

10 3. listing of requested products and brief description 4. price of each item 5. appropriate gross and net shipping weight 6. appropriate total cubic volume and dimensions packed for export 7. trade discount continued

11 8. delivery point 9. terms of sale 10. terms of payment 11. insurance and shipping costs 12. validity period for quotation 13. total charges to be paid by customer 14. estimated shipping date 15. currency of sale continued

12 What is an offer? An offer is a proposal made by sellers to buyers in order to enter into a contract. In other words, an offer refers to trading terms put forward by offerors to offerees, on which the offers are willing to conclude business with the offerees. There are two kinds of offers. One is firm offer and the other is non-firm offer. An offer is a proposal made by sellers to buyers in order to enter into a contract. In other words, an offer refers to trading terms put forward by offerors to offerees, on which the offers are willing to conclude business with the offerees. There are two kinds of offers. One is firm offer and the other is non-firm offer.

13 A firm offer is made when a seller promises to sell goods at a stated price within a stated period of time. Once it has been accepted it cannot be withdrawn. A non-firm offer is usually made by means of sending catalogues, pricelist, proforma invoices and quotations. It can be considered as an inducement to business.

14 What is a counter-offer? If the buyer finds any terms or conditions in he offer unacceptable, he can make a counter-offer to renew the terms, negotiating with the seller. A counter- offer is virtually a partial rejection of the original offer and also a counter proposal initiated by the buyer or the offeree. The buyer may show disagreement to the

15 price, or packing, or shipment and state his own terms instead. The effect of a counteroffer is that the original offer is no longer valid, and the offeree now becomes the offeror as the counteroffer becomes the new offer. This process can go on for many rounds until business is finalized or called off.

16 Writing Writing Skills Skills How to Write an Offer Letter? How to Write an Offer Letter?

17 (1) Thank the offerors’ offer; (2) Express regret at inability to accept and state reasons for non-acceptance; (3) Make a counter-offer if, in the circumstances, it is appropriate; (4) Urge the offeree to accept the counter-offer; (5) Suggest other opportunities to do business together A counter-offer letter usually covers the following points:

18 (1) Tell the reader that you have known his interest and show your regret; (2) Express your acceptance or regret that counter-offer is not acceptable; (3) Explain the reason for accepting or declining the counter-offer; (4) Wish to establish longtern business relations. A reply to the counter-offer usually covers the following:

19 Specimen Letter1 Canada Thomas Co.,Ltd. 120 Garden Street Vancouver, Canada June 6, 2006 China National Import & Export Corp. Shanghai , China Dear Sir,

20 Re: Acrylic Sweaters Thank you for your letter of May 15 for our Acrylic Sweaters. We are pleased to be told that there are very brisk demands for our products in New York. At your request, we are making you the following offer subject to your reply reaching here before June 30. Item: Acrylic Sweaters in different color/pattern assortments. Size: Large (L), Medium (M), Small (S) Unit Price: RMB¥25.00 (L), (M), (S) Packing: In polybags Specimen Letter1

21 1 Quantity: 2,000 dozens each size Payment: By irrevocable letter of credit in seller’s favor. Shipment: Within 3 ~ 4 weeks of receiving the L/C We trust the above goods will be acceptable to you and await your prompt reply. Wangjian China National Import & Export Corp. Manager

22 (信头略) 亲爱的先生: 主题:化纤汗衫 感谢贵方 5 月 15 日关于化纤汗衫的询盘。现得 知,我们的产品在纽约市场需求活跃。 按照你方要求,我们给你方做出如下报盘, 此报价以 6 月 30 日之前受到你方回复起开始有 效。 Translation

23 产品:不同颜色和样式的化纤汗衫。 尺寸:大、中、小号。 单价:大号 元;中号 元;小号 元。 包装:塑料袋。 数量:每种尺寸 2000 打。 支付:以卖方为受益人的不可撤消的信用证。 装运:收到信用证后的 3 ~ 4 周。 我们相信你方将接受以上内容并尽快回复。 你忠诚的, (签名) 王健

24 Specimen Letter2 China National Import & Export Corp. Shanghai , China July 3, 2006 Canada Thomas Co.,Ltd. 120 Garden Street Vancouver, Canada Dear Sir,

25 With reference to your enquiry of June 10, we take pleasure in making the following offer: “2,000 dozens/sets Art. No. 007 ladies’ cotton wadded jackets, at $75.00 per dozen/set CIF Vancouver for shipment in September,2006, for payment by irrevocable documentary L/C in seller’s favor. Please note that this offer is subject to goods being unsold.” As we have received large number of orders from our clients, it is quite probable that our Specimen Letter2

26 2 present stock may soon run out. We would therefore suggest that you take advantage of this attractive offer. We look forward to receiving your order. Yours faithfully, David Liu

27 Reference Translation (信头略) 亲爱的先生 : 贵公司 6 月 10 日来函询价, 我方很荣幸, 现报盘如下 : “2000 打 / 套货号为 007 的女士棉袄, 每打 / 套 75 美元温哥华 CIF 价,2006 年 9 月装运,

28 以卖方为受益人的不可撤消的跟单信用证支 付。请注意此报盘以货物未售为准。 因为我们已从客户处接到大量订单,我们现 有的库存很可能告馨。因此建议贵公司利用 这次具有吸引力的报价。 盼望收到贵公司的订单。 你忠诚的, (签名) David Liu

29 We make you a firm offer for the captioned goods, subject to your acceptance reaching here before …. 我们给你方就上述货物报实盘,以你 方 …… 前的接受函到达这里为准。 We make you a firm offer for the captioned goods, subject to your acceptance reaching here before …. 我们给你方就上述货物报实盘,以你 方 …… 前的接受函到达这里为准。 The price for this commodity is …per..CIF …. 这种产品 CIF…… 的价格是 …… The price for this commodity is …per..CIF …. 这种产品 CIF…… 的价格是 …… Some Useful Sentences

30 As the market is firm with an upward tendency, we would suggest in your interest that you accept our offered price. 由于市场坚挺,行情 看涨,为了贵方利益我方建议贵方接受报价。 As the market is firm with an upward tendency, we would suggest in your interest that you accept our offered price. 由于市场坚挺,行情 看涨,为了贵方利益我方建议贵方接受报价。 We’ve already cut down our price to cost level. 我们已经将价格降到成本费的水平了。

31 My offer was based on reasonable profit, not on wild speculations. 我的报价以合理利润 为依据,不是漫天 要价。 My offer was based on reasonable profit, not on wild speculations. 我的报价以合理利润 为依据,不是漫天 要价。 We wish to state that our quotations are subject to alternation without notice and to our confirmation at the time of placing your order. 我方报价可随时变动 而不先通知,你方定 货时需以我方确认为 有效。 We wish to state that our quotations are subject to alternation without notice and to our confirmation at the time of placing your order. 我方报价可随时变动 而不先通知,你方定 货时需以我方确认为 有效。

32 Summary In this chapter, we have learnt appropriate knowledge of offer and counter-offer. An offer is a promise to supply on the terms and conditions stated. It must be made and accepted before a contract can exist. An offer can be classified into a non-firm offer and firm offer. The former is usually indicated by means of sending catalogues, price-lists, proforma invoices and quotations, while the latter is made when you promise to sell goods at a stated price within a stated period

33 of time. A firm offer must be expressed clearly in accuracy words, because once duly accepted they are binding legally. So in practice a supplier will not risk his reputation by quoting for goods he cannot or does not intend to supply. To both parties, a firm offer is capable be withdrawn. After learning some specimen letters, we have the ability to write letters on offers, firm-offer and counter- offers.

34 Homework a.Finish the exercisesFinish the exercises on page … b. Writing practice

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