Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment EQ: How do new ideas spark change?"— Presentation transcript:
1 The EnlightenmentEQ: How do new ideas spark change?
2 Academic Vocabulary Natural law Social contract Separation of power DeismAbsolutismBill of RightsPhilosophes
3 What was the Enlightenment? In 1700s European thinkers believed that reason (rational thought) could be used to make government and society better.Wanted to illuminate people, and get rid of superstition and ignorancePolitical thinkers applied reason to governmentNatural law = law that applied to everyone and could be understood by reason.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0B28_gwj0M
4 Thomas Hobbes English thinker, wrote about English gov. and society Leviathan (1651) = absolute monarchy the best form of government.Humans were “naturally” selfish, violent, and could not be trustedTherefore, they needed a government who could rule like the leviathan (sea monster) = humans needed kings, strong rulers
5 1. What sort of government did Hobbes support in Leviathan?
6 John Locke English thinker Citizens have rights and government has to answer to the people.The Treatise of Government (1690) all people had natural rights—life, liberty, and right to own property.Purpose of government is to protect these rightsSocial contract = an agreement between rulers and people
7 Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) A French thinkerThe Sprit of the Laws (1748)Believed in separation of powersPower divided among branches of government = legislative, executive, judicialBy sepearating these powers , gov. could not become too powerful and threaten people’s rights
8 Activity: Review Questions 2. Explain the event that Thomas Hobbes experienced during his life in England that influenced this ideas. 3. Explain the event that John Locke experienced during his life in England that influenced his ideas. 4. What sort of government did John Locke support? 5. According to Montesquieu how should government be organized?
9 Activity: Primary Source “Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject (people) would be exposed to arbitrary (unpredictable) control; for judges would be then the legislator. Were it jointed to the executive power the judge might behave with violence and oppression.”Questions:1. According to Montesquieu, why should judges be independent. Explain using supporting detail.2. How have Montesquieu’s view influence our US government. Explain in 5-6 sentences.
10 The Philosophes 18th century French thinkers, writers, teachers Wanted to use reason (logic) to change societyCommitted to social reformCelebrated the scientific revolutionBelieved in freedom of speech and individual’s rights to freedomSpread these ideas in their writing
11 Activity: Voltaire, Diderot & Rousseau Read Voltaire, Diderot and RousseauCreate a 3 Fold-Chart. Explain who these philosophes were and how they contributed to the Enlightenment.Voltaire Diderot RousseauProfessionIdeas (What did they support or believe in?Influence the Enlightenment)
12 Enlightenment and Women 1700s women thinkers called for women’s rightsMary WollstonecraftAn English writerFounder of modern women’s right movementWrote: Vindication of the rights of WomenAll humans have reason—including women so they should have same rights as menRights to get en education, work, and participate in political life.
13 Activity: Primary Source 3. Question: What did Wollstonecraft believed would happen if women were allowed to have rights?
14 Louis XIV “Sun King”The Age of AbsolutismAbsolute rulers had a lot of power, but they asked the Philosophes for help to be better rulers.Catherine “The GreatMaria TheresaJoseph II, HapsburgPeter “The Great”
15 Activity: Organizing Information Draw a chart to list the rulers of the Enlightenment, their countries, and their accomplishments.Absolute RulerCountryAccomplishments
16 Home Learning After reading “The Enlightenment.” Answer the following review questions on the back of the packet:Questions #1-7 (EXCEPT #3)
17 Enlightenment Philosophes In groups complete a chart of the following philosophes.Take additional notes on the following video.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CP8k_f3PFq8Use your TEXTBOOKS (pgs )Each member of your group will turn in a draft of the thinker they were assigned while working in the group.Philosophes (Thinkers’ Name)Ideas(Write 3 Ideas)22.214.171.124.5.6.7.
18 High School Project After you finish the chart with your group How do you think the ideas of the philosophes will influence (affect) the American Revolution? Write two paragraphs explaining your ideas.After you finish the chart with your group, CHOOSE the thinker you will be working on for your project.Begin answering the Questions on your Outline (You will have 30 mintues)