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The Enlightenment EQ: How do new ideas spark change? EQ: How do new ideas spark change?

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment EQ: How do new ideas spark change? EQ: How do new ideas spark change?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment EQ: How do new ideas spark change? EQ: How do new ideas spark change?

2 Academic Vocabulary Natural law Natural law Social contract Social contract Separation of power Separation of power Deism Deism Absolutism Absolutism Bill of Rights Bill of Rights Philosophes Philosophes

3 What was the Enlightenment? In 1700s European thinkers believed that reason (rational thought) could be used to make government and society better. In 1700s European thinkers believed that reason (rational thought) could be used to make government and society better. Wanted to illuminate people, and get rid of superstition and ignorance Wanted to illuminate people, and get rid of superstition and ignorance Political thinkers applied reason to government Political thinkers applied reason to government Natural law = law that applied to everyone and could be understood by reason. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0B28 _gwj0M

4 Thomas Hobbes English thinker, wrote about English gov. and society English thinker, wrote about English gov. and society Leviathan (1651) = absolute monarchy the best form of government. Leviathan (1651) = absolute monarchy the best form of government. Humans were “naturally” selfish, violent, and could not be trusted Humans were “naturally” selfish, violent, and could not be trusted Therefore, they needed a government who could rule like the leviathan (sea monster) = humans needed kings, strong rulers Therefore, they needed a government who could rule like the leviathan (sea monster) = humans needed kings, strong rulers

5 1. What sort of government did Hobbes support in Leviathan?

6 John Locke English thinker English thinker Citizens have rights and government has to answer to the people. Citizens have rights and government has to answer to the people. The Treatise of Government (1690) all people had natural rights—life, liberty, and right to own property. The Treatise of Government (1690) all people had natural rights—life, liberty, and right to own property. Purpose of government is to protect these rights Purpose of government is to protect these rights Social contract = an agreement between rulers and people Social contract = an agreement between rulers and people

7 Baron de Montesquieu ( ) A French thinker A French thinker The Sprit of the Laws (1748) The Sprit of the Laws (1748) Believed in separation of powers Believed in separation of powers Power divided among branches of government = legislative, executive, judicial Power divided among branches of government = legislative, executive, judicial By sepearating these powers, gov. could not become too powerful and threaten people’s rights By sepearating these powers, gov. could not become too powerful and threaten people’s rights

8 Activity: Review Questions 2. Explain the event that Thomas Hobbes experienced during his life in England that influenced this ideas. 3. Explain the event that John Locke experienced during his life in England that influenced his ideas. 4. What sort of government did John Locke support? 5. According to Montesquieu how should government be organized?

9 Activity: Primary Source “Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject (people) would be exposed to arbitrary (unpredictable) control; for judges would be then the legislator. Were it jointed to the executive power the judge might behave with violence and oppression.” “Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject (people) would be exposed to arbitrary (unpredictable) control; for judges would be then the legislator. Were it jointed to the executive power the judge might behave with violence and oppression.” Questions: Questions: According to Montesquieu, why should judges be independent. Explain using supporting detail How have Montesquieu’s view influence our US government. Explain in 5-6 sentences.

10 The Philosophes 18 th century French thinkers, writers, teachers 18 th century French thinkers, writers, teachers Wanted to use reason (logic) to change society Wanted to use reason (logic) to change society Committed to social reform Committed to social reform Celebrated the scientific revolution Celebrated the scientific revolution Believed in freedom of speech and individual’s rights to freedom Believed in freedom of speech and individual’s rights to freedom Spread these ideas in their writing Spread these ideas in their writing

11 Activity: Voltaire, Diderot & Rousseau Read Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau Read Voltaire, Diderot and Rousseau Create a 3 Fold-Chart. Explain who these philosophes were and how they contributed to the Enlightenment. Create a 3 Fold-Chart. Explain who these philosophes were and how they contributed to the Enlightenment. Voltaire Diderot Rousseau 1.Profession 2.Ideas (What did they support or believe in? 3.Influence the Enlightenment)

12 Enlightenment and Women 1700s women thinkers called for women’s rights 1700s women thinkers called for women’s rights Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft An English writer Founder of modern women’s right movement Wrote: Vindication of the rights of Women Wrote: Vindication of the rights of Women All humans have reason—including women so they should have same rights as men All humans have reason—including women so they should have same rights as men Rights to get en education, work, and participate in political life. Rights to get en education, work, and participate in political life.

13 Activity: Primary Source 3. Question: What did Wollstonecraft believed would happen if women were allowed to have rights? 3. Question: What did Wollstonecraft believed would happen if women were allowed to have rights?

14 The Age of Absolutism Absolute rulers had a lot of power, but they asked the Philosophes for help to be better rulers. Absolute rulers had a lot of power, but they asked the Philosophes for help to be better rulers. Louis XIV “Sun King” Maria Theresa Joseph II, Hapsburg Peter “The Great” Catherine “The Great

15 Activity: Organizing Information Draw a chart to list the rulers of the Enlightenment, their countries, and their accomplishments. Draw a chart to list the rulers of the Enlightenment, their countries, and their accomplishments. Absolute RulerCountryAccomplishments

16 Home Learning After reading “The Enlightenment.” After reading “The Enlightenment.” Answer the following review questions on the back of the packet: Answer the following review questions on the back of the packet: Questions #1-7 (EXCEPT #3) Questions #1-7 (EXCEPT #3)

17 Enlightenment Philosophes In groups complete a chart of the following philosophes. In groups complete a chart of the following philosophes. Take additional notes on the following video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CP8k_f3PFq8 Use your TEXTBOOKS (pgs ) Use your TEXTBOOKS (pgs ) Each member of your group will turn in a draft of the thinker they were assigned while working in the group. Each member of your group will turn in a draft of the thinker they were assigned while working in the group. Philosophes (Thinkers’ Name) Ideas (Write 3 Ideas)

18 High School Project After you finish the chart with your group After you finish the chart with your group How do you think the ideas of the philosophes will influence (affect) the American Revolution? Write two paragraphs explaining your ideas. How do you think the ideas of the philosophes will influence (affect) the American Revolution? Write two paragraphs explaining your ideas. After you finish the chart with your group, CHOOSE the thinker you will be working on for your project. After you finish the chart with your group, CHOOSE the thinker you will be working on for your project. Begin answering the Questions on your Outline (You will have 30 mintues) Begin answering the Questions on your Outline (You will have 30 mintues)


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