Presentation on theme: "EARLY SOCIOLOGICAL THINKERS. HOW DID IT BEGIN? In the mid nineteenth century, the world saw massive growth in industrialization and in turn urbanization."— Presentation transcript:
EARLY SOCIOLOGICAL THINKERS
HOW DID IT BEGIN? In the mid nineteenth century, the world saw massive growth in industrialization and in turn urbanization. In turn, there were changes in working and living conditions. These changes led to the development of new social problems: inadequate housing, crowding, unsanitary conditions, poverty, pollution and crime. With the development of the scientific method, social thinkers thought they might discover the laws of human behavior and apply these laws to solve these social problems.
AUGUSTE COMPTE (1798-1857) Coined the term sociology from the latin socius (being with others) and the greek logos (study of). “Social Statics” theory- the overall structure of society remains stable over time. “Social Dynamics”- the idea that elements within society change to allow for social development.
HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802-1876) Translated Compte’s work. Analyzed the consequences of industrialism and capitalism. Payed special attention to social distinctions based on race, class, and gender.
HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903) -Influenced by Charles Darwin and the idea of “survival of the fittest”. -His theory became known as “Social Darwinism”. - Felt the “fittest” members of society would succeed and so he opposed social reform.
EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917) Disagreed with Spencer. He stressed the science of sociology, using research to test his theories. Believed behavior cannot be understood in individual terms but only in a large social context.
Karl Marx (economist/philosopher) Believed that class conflict was necessary for the betterment of society. Bourgeoisie- own the means of production. Proletariat- sell their labour to earn a livelihood. Alienation- a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself.