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Teaching Thinking -- A Guide for the Perplexed Yoram Harpaz Mandel Leadership Institute, Jerusalem

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Thinking -- A Guide for the Perplexed Yoram Harpaz Mandel Leadership Institute, Jerusalem"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Thinking -- A Guide for the Perplexed Yoram Harpaz Mandel Leadership Institute, Jerusalem

2 Why teach thinking? The explosion of knowledge  Knowledge is expanding  Knowledge is accessible  Knowledge is relative

3 How teach thinking when... “There are an awful lot of theories around.” – Robert Sternberg “With so much controversy in the air, it’s understandable that only a few teachers and schools make the attempt.” -- David Perkins “Mind Workers Unite!” -- Arthur Costa

4 Approaches to Teaching Thinking The Main Question: what is the foundational element of good thinking and how is it taught? Skills Approach Dispositions Approach Understanding Approach

5 Some definitions Skills: means of thinking implemented rapidly and precisely (e.g. heuristics, tools, organizers). Neutral skills: means of thinking that render common cognitive processes more efficient (e.g. classifying, grading, comparing, deciding, etc.). Normative skills: means of thinking that create uncommon cognitive processes (e.g. breaking patterns, devising problems, exposing premises, discovering biases, etc.).

6 Disposition: intellectual trait that is conciously chosen and justified. Thinking dispositions: traits with direct impact on thinking. Disposition to think: to engage and be engaged in thinking. Some definitions

7 Understanding: locating knowledge in relevant and rich contexts and/or performance – intellectual moves with knowledge. Substantive understanding: understanding the substance of thinking. Reflective understanding: understanding thinking or the conditions that make it good thinking. Some definitions

8 Patterns of teaching thinking Teaching: education through knowledge Skills – Impartation Disposition – Cultivation Understanding – Construction

9 The Approaches as Worldviews Skills: Good Thinker is efficient thinker Dispositions: Good Thinker is wise thinker Understanding: Good Thinker is learned thinker

10 The approaches as lenses Thinking Shortfalls Skills: faults (lack of thinking skills or their faulty application) Dispositions: weaknesses (character flaws or “weak ego”) Understanding: misunderstandings Metacognition Intelligence Transfer

11 The Metaphorical Aspects “The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) Skills: thinking as a toolbox Dispositions: thinking as deep currents Understanding: thinking as a net

12 The practical aspect: the approaches in school Skills’ “standard deviation”: taming Dispositions’ “standard deviation”: preaching Understanding’s “standard deviation”: lecturing

13 The Understanding Approach The Dispositions Approach The Skills Approach Approaches Characteristics UnderstandingDispositionsSkillsFoundational element ConstructionCultivationImpartatio n Patterns of teaching Learned thinkerWise thinkerEfficient thinker Ideologies: "the good thinker" NetDeep currentsToolboxMetaphors for thinking LecturingPreachingTaming“Standard deviation“ David Perkins & Howard Gardner, Teaching for Understanding Arthur Costa, Habits of Mind Edward De Bono, CoRT Examples

14 Two Essential Questions 1. What to believe – why three? 2. What to do – which approach is best?

15 1. Three elements of good thinking correspond to three components of thinking: Thinking skills Processes of thinking Thinking disposition Qualities of thinking Understanding Contents of thinking

16 2. Teach skills and dispositions within the understanding approach and the pattern of construction.

17 Perkins - Understanding performances Gardner - Understanding in the disciplines Wiske - Teaching for understanding Wiggins & McTighe - Understanding by design Paul - Critical thinking in the strong sense McPeck - The reflective critical thinker Brown - Community of learners Smith - Understanding as good thinking Perkins - Understanding performances Gardner - Understanding in the disciplines Wiske - Teaching for understanding Wiggins & McTighe - Understanding by design Paul - Critical thinking in the strong sense McPeck - The reflective critical thinker Brown - Community of learners Smith - Understanding as good thinking Brooks & Brooks - Constructivist instruction Lipman - Philosophy for children Harpaz & Lefstein - Community of thinking Perkins - Dispositions theory of thinking Tishman - Thinking dispositions Costa - Habits of mind Baron -Theory of rationality Langer – Mindfulness Barrel – Thoughtfulness Facione - Critical thinking dispositions Passmore - Critical thinking as a character trait Siegel - The spirit of the critical thinker Perkins - Dispositions theory of thinking Tishman - Thinking dispositions Costa - Habits of mind Baron -Theory of rationality Langer – Mindfulness Barrel – Thoughtfulness Facione - Critical thinking dispositions Passmore - Critical thinking as a character trait Siegel - The spirit of the critical thinker Sternberg - Successful intelligence Sternberg - Successful intelligence Golman - Emotional Intelligence Lipman - Philosophy for children De Bono – CoRT Ennis - Taxonomy of critical chinking Beyer - Direct teaching of thinking Perkins - Thinking frames Perkins & Swartz - Graphic organizers Swartz & Parks – Infusion Sternberg - Intelligence implied Treffinger, Isaksen & Dorval - Creative problem polving Johnson & Blair - Informal logic Chaffee - thinking critically De Bono – CoRT Ennis - Taxonomy of critical chinking Beyer - Direct teaching of thinking Perkins - Thinking frames Perkins & Swartz - Graphic organizers Swartz & Parks – Infusion Sternberg - Intelligence implied Treffinger, Isaksen & Dorval - Creative problem polving Johnson & Blair - Informal logic Chaffee - thinking critically Whimbey & Lochhead - Problem solving Feuerstein. - Instrumental Enrichment Lipman - Philosophy for children Theories, programs, ideas - examples The Understanding Approach The Dispositions Approach The Skills Approach ApproachesCharacteristics

18 The Understanding Approach The Dispositions Approach The Skills Approach ApproachesCharacteristics Understanding: The ability to locate a concept in a context of other concepts, to implement concepts in new contexts and perform thinking processes with knowledge. Dispositions: Motivation for good thinking which is formed by reasonable choices. Skills: Thinking tools used efficiently - quickly and precisely - in given circumstances. The foundational element of good thinking Substantive understanding; Reflective understanding Thinking dispositions; Disposition to think Neutral skills; Normative skills Types of foundational elements The pattern of construction The pattern of cultivation The pattern of impartation Patterns of teaching Learned thinker Wise thinker Efficient thinker Ideologies: "the good thinker" MisunderstandingsWeaknessesFaults Typical Thinking shortfalls Metacognition is understanding Metacognition is disposition Metacognition is skill Meta-cognition Intelligence is constituted of understandings Intelligence is constituted of dispositions Intelligence is constituted of skills Intelligence Skill and disposition are included in understanding Skill and understanding are included in disposition Disposition and understanding are included in skill Attempt at reductionism Net Deep currents Toolbox Metaphors for thinking LecturingPreachingTaming “Standard deviation“ Give the child knowledge of the fishing field! Give the child bait! Give the child a fishing rod! Slogan


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