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Sydney Tower Harbour Bridge Opera House The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian.

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Presentation on theme: "Sydney Tower Harbour Bridge Opera House The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sydney Tower Harbour Bridge Opera House

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4 The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian traffic The bridge is nicknamed "The Coathanger" because of its arch- based design The bridge was designed and built by English firm Dorman Long and Co Ltd and opened in 1932 It is the world's widest long-span bridge It is also the fifth longest spanning-arch bridge in the world And it is the tallest steel arch bridge Until 1967 the Harbour Bridge was Sydney's tallest structure.

5 How did they get all that steel up there?

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8 One of the four main support bearings. When the bridge is at maximum load, each bearing will be carrying 10,160 tonnes (10,000 British tons) Note the US ton is similar to the British ton i.e., 1 British ton = 1.12 US ton

9 One of two giant 579 tonne (570 British ton) creeper cranes which actually built the arches After building each single section they crawled on to it to build the next one

10 Sydney's floating crane "Titan" helps the creeper crane fix the first girders of the bridge in place. Sadly, the Titan met a similar fate to some of the punts. After having been sold to overseas interests, it was being towed to the new owners when, unfortunately, being somewhere off the coast opposite North West Rocks, it turned turtle and sank.

11 In the next series of pictures you can see the huge bunch of 128 steel cables, each 7cm (2 & ¾ inch) diameter and 366m (1200ft) long, holding back each of the partly-built arch-ends. I wonder how many times the engineer, who decided how big the cables had to be and how many, did his calculations. Remember there were no computers. Each cable was tested to 355 tonnes (350 British tons), which was more than twice the expected load, so I guess he didn't trust his slide-rule too much.

12 The cables are attached to the top chord of the arch by two large fish-plates

13 The cables leave the bridge, enter the 45° U shaped tunnel, come out the other side then go back up to the bridge

14 The cables run down one leg of the 40m (132ft) deep U shaped cable tunnel

15 At the bottom of the 40m (132ft) deep U shaped cable tunnel. The cables run in greased grooves. There are 40,642 tonnes (40,000 British tons) of rock above to hold down the 15,241 tonnes (15000 British tons) half-arch

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19 The crawler crane weaves its steel web with special rust resistant silicon steel, 30% stronger than normal mild steel

20 Face to face with a crawler crane as it sits on the end of its steel web

21 The building on the right is part of the workshops where the bridge girders were fabricated The North Shore Spans are in place but the restraining cables are yet to be fitted.

22 The workshops rise from the soil

23 Inside the workshops, the first deck hanger is finished

24 That sheet of steel is 5cm (2 inches) thick

25 A pile of deck hangers wait to be called for

26 The Inspector checks one of the large fish-plates which will connect the cables to the Bridge

27 The North Shore arch is under way now that the cables are fitted

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29 The arch takes shape, even though all the individual pieces are dead straight

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32 What a great lunch- time view!

33 through the hole and hold it there while the rivetter rounds over the end. As it cools, it shrinks, causing it to grab the steel plates tightly. And so another of the approx 6 million rivets will be in place It's back to work for this rivetter as he indicates which hole he wants the next rivet in. The man underneath will push a red-hot rivet up

34 Explanation on the next slide

35 After completion, the two halves sat, just 1m (3 ft) apart, hanging on their support cables. When the wind blew hard enough, the two ends, of the 15,241 tonnes (15000 British ton) half-arches, drifted back and forth approx 7.6 cm (3 inches). It took phenomenal manufacturing accuracy to get the two half-arches aligned this well. The large thick- set man, standing on the tip of the left-hand arch, is Lawrence Ennis, who had the responsibility of actually building the bridge. In the gap beneath the men you can see the 2.1m (7ft) long tapered registration pin which will make sure the arch ends fit perfectly. The photo was taken from the opposite side of the right-hand arch

36 After the cables had been slackened enough to close the gap, the creeper cranes filled in the remaining "v" shaped section above the join. Milson's Point railway station is down near the water on the left. The Bridge girders were fabricated in the big buildings next to it on the site now partly occupied by Luna Park

37 Workmen join the last section at the centre of the top of the arch

38 The cables have done their job

39 The arch now finished, the deck hanging commenced. Here a part of the first hanger is being hauled into position

40 The first of 21 girders, weighing 99.5 tonnes (98 British tons), is lifted the 48.77m (160ft) above the water to meet the two hangers it will be mated with

41 The first 99.5 tonne (98 British ton) deck-girder is finally in position, suspended on its 58.5m (192ft) hangers

42 And so the roadway in the sky grows

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44 A bird's eye view of hanging the deck

45 A closer look at the deck

46 The suspended roadway is almost finished. Deck girder No 21 is the only one left to hang

47 Two lions guard the view from Neutral Bay Heights of a bridge without pylons

48 The pylons nearing completion

49 What a wonderful view you must have had before a number of suicides forced the current high fence to be fitted Not much more to do. Notice the low railing on the pedestrian walkway.

50 Load testing (Notice the locomotives) read next slide

51 Load tests being carried out just before the hand-over from the builders. 7,112 tonnes (7000 British tons) of steam locomotives (96) would have plunged into the harbour had the test failed, but it didn't. The bridge passed with flying colours, placing a thrust of 20 million kilograms (44.1 million lbs) on the Sydney sandstone on each side of the harbour. The combined weight of the steam-locos caused the deck to flex downwards just 7.6cm (3 inches)

52 Finished at last. The Sydney Harbour Bridge finally became our Sydney Harbour Bridge

53 Steam had the honour of pulling the first train over the bridge, and also the honour of carrying a very special VIP, Dr Bradfield himself.

54 Dr. John Job Crew Bradfield CMG spent 40 yrs of his life championing the cause of a harbour bridge. He was able to pull all the engineering, financial and political parts of the puzzle together to produce one of Australia's long lasting landmarks. CMG = Order of St Michael and St George

55 The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is an order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later George IV of the United Kingdom, while he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, George III. It is named in honour of two military saints, St. Michael and St. George. The Order of St Michael and St George is awarded to men and women who render extraordinary or important non- military service in a foreign country. It can also be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs.

56 No doubt his insights into human nature helped, as shown by the following nugget of wisdom. He gave this advice to a young engineer on his first field trip, surveying the city railway tunnels. "You will be down amongst the tunnellers, working in muddy and hazardous conditions. The language can be a bit blue and usually revolves around beer, women and horses. Take no notice of this. With few exceptions they are decent family men. If you show them respect, they will do anything willingly for you; but if you try and boss them you will get nowhere, and neither will the job." Maybe modern managers could learn a thing or two from Dr Bradfield.

57 On reaching the centre of the bridge the train stopped and its load of engineering passengers lined up for a photo. Lawerence Ennis, the big man responsible for building the bridge, is front centre. Dr Bradfield is front right – Next slide larger photo

58 Lawerence Ennis Dr Bradfield

59 Jack Lang (Premier of New South Wales) watched by Sir Philip Game (Governor or New South Wales) cuts official ribbon 19th March 1932

60 Opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge; the first cars at the toll bar.

61 A tram coming off the Sydney end of the Bridge on opening day, Most people decided to walk across

62 First cars and trains across Sydney Harbour Bridge March 1932

63 Looking past the Western side of the Bridge towards the sea

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65 Fort Denison protects the bridge from any Armada that may come sailing up the harbour

66 Impressive from any angle

67 503 metres = 550 yards 1,149 metres = 1,256 yards 49 metres = 161 feet 52,800 tonnes = 51,966 tons 134 metres = 146 yards 59 metres = 193 feet 39,000 tonnes = 38,384 tons 30,000 litres = 6,599 gallons (British)

68 While the main plates of the Bridge are of special rust resistant silicon steel, unfortunately the rivets are not and they do rust, especially on the Eastern side of each rivet where they are exposed to the salt-laden Easterly sea breeze

69 I hope you enjoyed this presentation as much as I did putting it together


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